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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

Latvian Dainas LexiLine? Logo Selections II
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning

Latvian Dainas II
Selections In English Translation

As noted by Hans Rychener, in his book
 ...und Estland, Lettland, Litauen? (Herbert Lang: Berlin, 1805, p. 24)

"The myths of the Lithuanians and Latvians ... remind one
of the belief systems of the ancient Hindus and Greeks."

Robert Payne, in The Green Linden, Selected Lithuanian Folk-songs
(Voyages Press: N.Y. 1964) writes: The Dainos ... represent a form of
poetry as ancient as anything on this earth.... They have a beauty and
pure primitive splendor above anything I know in Western literature,
except the early songs of the Greek Islanders. They seem to have
been written at the morning of the world, and the dew is still on them."

Hermanis Rathfelders, in many writings in Acta Baltica,
wrote that the Latvian DAINAS were extremely ancient,
preceding the milling of grain.

These DAINAS (much more numerous in Latvian than Lithuanian)
were collected over many years by Krisjanis Barons (Christian Baron)
and his successors and issued in 12 volumes as
Latviesu Tautas Dziesmas (Chansons Populaires Lettonnes)
Edited by Arveds Švābe, Kārlis Straubergs, Edīte Hauzenberga-Šturma.
Imanta Publishers, Copenhagen, 1952-1956.
officially cited with diacritics as
Latviešu tautas dziesmas, (Chansons populaires lettonnes) volumes I -- XII .

The problem is that they are in Latvian and have never been translated.
LexiLine will present translations here.
Some Dainas are short, some long. Each Daina has an assigned Number.

(search the Dainas here).

Latvian APIŅU dārzs
[*Para-da(r)zs as Paradise?]
and Sumerian MUL.APIN
huMULus = APIN

The Sumerian (Akkadian, Babylonian) MUL.APIN cuneiform tablets
begin with the symbols for MUL and APIN.
This is the origin of the name MUL.APIN for these tablets
and GISH.APIN (GISH is the determinative for wood, Latvian KOKS)
(thought to be "plow") is the first constellation listed.

In the Latvian "rotaļa games" (Dainas, Vol. 11, p. 546)
i.e. "rotational games" relating to the Sun, Moon [and Pleiades]
the participants stand in a line and
chase each other thrice around in a circle
[just as Narmer, king of Egypt, see page 19 of
Clayton's Chronicle of the Pharaohs, German version]
the leader carrying a stick with a braided cloth end
or actual blossoms on a stick
trying to catch up to the last person in the round

all the while singing a song
in which the sun BEGINS its journey
in the APIŅU darzs (garden of APIN,
APIŅI meaning "hops" or "hop" blossoms
(the "hop" plant is Latin genus huMULus, humus
through satem/centum shift < Latvian zemes, zemulis).

There are many variants of this APIN game and song
dealing with the first blossoms of spring.
The game is also played as "Sietinos" or "Sietins"
which is also the Latvian term for the Pleiades.

Here is a typical APIN verse.

Latvian Song

English Translation

Neguli, saulīte

Do not tarry, Sun

Apiņu dārzā

In the garden of [MUL.]APIN

Tur tevi ziediņi

Or the blossoms


Will cover you there.

The use of APIN for the "hop plant" surely precedes the plow
and shows how well the ancients observed nature. Humulus is
dioecious and well suited as the "flowering tree" in paradise
(male and female flowers are borne by different plants).

Humulus starts to grow in spring, twining clockwise,
reaching incredible heights of 20 to 30 feet,
(origin of the Jack and the Beanstalk myth ?)
but in autumn, drops fully to ground level. It is a
perfect plant to show the coming and going of fertility,
also in an astronomical context, i.e. "drawing the stars".


In the most ancient Egyptian monuments,
Seth (Anubis) is pictured at Mid-Heaven on a sled.
The heavenly sled (
Ramas Kamanas) is also found in the Latvian Dainas.

Daina 33681 (Variant 1) states that:

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Rami rami Dieviņš brauca

Slowly, slowly, God did ride

No kalniņa lejiņā

Down the hill into the dale

Dieviņam rami zirgi

God has tranquil horses

Ramas kaltas kamaniņas

And a tranquilly smithied sled

Daina 33683 (and seven variants) add 2 lines stating that God,
in following the ecliptic, does not damage the blossoms
nor the seed of the agrarian.

Daina 33683 (Variant 4) states that:

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Nemaitāja ievas ziedus

Did no harm to apple blossoms

Ne arāja gājumiņu

Or to plougher's seed

So where is "God " located in the heavens?

We find this from Daina 33664 (Variant 3 and 4)

Latvian Daina

English Translation

No tālienes jau pazinu

From a distance, I could see

Dieva jātu kumeliņu

God upon his steed

Zelta segli mugurā

Gold the saddle on his back

Sudrabiņi iemauktiņi

And a bridle made of silver

Pie segliem saule lēca

At the saddle, rose the Sun

Iemauktos mēnestiņš
[variant: Auseklītis]

At the bridle, the Moon [Morning Star]

Pavadiņas galiņā

At its tip [of the bridle]

Zelta zvaigzne ritināja 

The golden star did wheel (roll, circulate)


A number of Dainas seem to point to a Nub
or Pole of Heaven and to precession.

For example, DAINA 55347 (p. 451, Vol. 11):

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Griezies, saulīte,

 Turn, Sun

Griezies, mēness,

 Turn, Moon

Griezies, nabiņa,

 Turn, Nub [of Heaven]

Vecā vietā!

 In the old place !


DAINA 34047 (Variant 7) deals with a heavenly wedding.

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Pērkons jāja ar zibeni

Rode the Thunder and the Lightning

Saules meitas precībās

To the wedding of Sun's daughter

Aizjādams, pārjādams

 Riding over and away

Sasper zelta ozoliņu

Striking down the golden oak

Sērdienīte gauži raud

She of sad days wept so dearly

Zelta zarus lasīdama

 Pickung up the golden branches

Salasījse zelta zarus

 And when they were all collected

Nopin zelta vainadziņu

She did spin a golden wreath (crown, corona)

Uzliek sev galviņā

Placing it upon her head

Tā aizgāja Vāczemē

She went off into the West

Visi kungi brīnījās

 All the men [folk] were quite amazed

Kur to tadu kroni ņēmi

Where did you get such a crown....

Dainas at lexi54, lexi99 , lexi197 and lexi200

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