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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

andis kaulins avebury
Hydra - See the figure inside?

Ancient Measures LexiLine? Logo Cubits and Hsiu
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning

Pharaonic and Biblical 
Weights and Measures

in Cubits and Spans
and comparable terms for
astronomical divisions such as the
Chinese Lunar Mansions - Hsiu
(very speculative comparisons to suggest that ancient linear measurement had its comparable in the measurements taken of the sky)


Above - The Royal Pharaonic (and Hebrew) Cubit
Based on Peter Tompkins, Secrets of the Great Pyramid

The Pharaonic numbers correspond in name to the 28 lunar mansions.

The Normal Biblical cubit was 6 hands x 4 fingers =
24 fingers = ca. 1 1/2 feet = 18.75 inches = ca. 45 cm
The Hebrew cubit = Royal Pharaonic cubit = 28 fingers = ca. 52.5 cm

A Span (half-a-cubit) = ca. 23 cm
1 finger = ca. 1.875 cm
1 hand of four fingers (1 hand-breadth) = ca. 7.5 cm
1 rod = 6 cubits = ca. 315 cm

1 Sumerian sila (pint) = 1 Akkadian ga [kauss] = 486 cubic cm = 1/60 artaba

1 pint in cuneiform texts = 60 sheqels of 8.10 grams (9/10 of an Egyptian qedet)

1 artaba = 29,160 cubic cm = 90 Roman librae
1 artaba = 3200 Egyptian qedet of 9.1125 g = 3240 Egyptian qedet of 3240 g
1 artaba = 450,000 English grains = 1080 Roman ounces of 27 cubic cm or grams

As visible in the discussion of the Ark of the Covenant
there has been some misunderstanding in the course of mainstream scholarship
about ancient weights and measures.


The Royal Pharaonic cubit divisions are related to astronomy
and are set off by 2 from the Chinese lunar mansions

Chinese HSIH 5 = Pharaonic TEFNOUT 3

The Chinese "heart" HSIH as the 5th Chinese Lunar mansion
is the same as the Heart sign for Pharaonic 3.

As Santillana, in Hamlet's Mill explains, "the heart often figures as
the plumb line coming from the astronomical or surveying device, the merkhet."
Quoted in Tompkins, Secrets of the Great Pyramid, p. 260.

The sense here is perhaps the heart as the plumb line" of heaven,
marking the
nodes of the ecliptic and the equinoxes
(e.g. alpha-Tauri and beta-Scorpii in 2340 BC).

Chinese WEI 6 "tail"= Pharaonic GEB 4

GeB is the Pharaonic term for "goose" and similar birds.
Pharaonic GEB = Latvian ĶEPA "paw without the thumb,
i.e. four" as well as ČĀPO "waddle", which looks like the original root term
with the manner of walking giving birth to the name of the bird.

Chinese CHI 7 and TOU 8 = Pharaonic NOUT 5 and SIRIS 6

Chinese 7 CHI "sieve" and 8 TOU "dipper".

Chinese HIU 9 "ox" ? = Pharaonic ISIS 7

ISIS (ASET ESET) is written in early hieroglyphs as I-S-T-A or I-S-T-E-Ni-ba,
which corresponds to Latvian ĪSTA or ĪSTENĪBA meaning "real, genuine"
(see discussion of PTAH later below). Astronomically, ISIS was affiliated with SIRIUS,
but this is an ancient error, taking the oppositie noding star, whereas
correctly it is ALTAIR (ĪSTA is retained in the name SAGITTA)
maybe as Latvian ASTE "tail". I.e. this is the "real" line of galactic heaven, perpendicular to the nodes of the ecliptic at that time.

Chinese NU 10 "woman" = Pharaonic SET 8

Latvian - ASToņi is "eight" Old Prussian ASMeni = Pharaonic cubit SET "eight"
i.e. ASeT-. ASTE means "behind, tail" in Latvian and is an ancient term for "female",
i.e. "behind, tail" whence the Chinese "woman".
Latvian SIEVIETE also means woman = Pharaonic SET.
Pharaonic "eight" is later normally the word KEMENI - s//k shift from asmeni.

Chinese HSU 11 "empty" = Pharaonic NEPHTYS 9

(This is a virtually empty part of the heavens to the eye - no bright stars)
Pharaonic NEPHTYS is nothing other than
Latvian nebaids N-B-D-S "no fear, no danger".

Chinese WEI 12 = Pharaonic HORUS 10

Latvian VARS "power" viz. VISI = "all" = HORUS.
HORUS often means "gates" in Pharaonic
and marks the four cardinal gates of the heavens.
Latvian VA(R) is comparable to Chinese WEI meaning "danger" from "power".
Do we have this same development in English WARN?
Lavian VARNA is "crow".

Chinese SHIH "room" (the star SCHEAT?) 13
= Pharaonic IMSET 11

Imset is a mistranscription by the Egyptologists, since correct is IM-SET where IM is a determinative for something "measured, built, constructed", so the actual word is SET- as in Latvian SETA "gate, fence, fenced off, enclosed area". This of course is Pegasus, in Babylo-Sumerian ASH-IKU. This may possibly have been the "tail" star of Pegasus, Enif, in the original system, i.e. the entry way to the "wall".

Chinese PI "wall" 14 = Pharaonic HABI 12
which is the star Mark-AB

ABI in Latvian means "both", probably homophonically used.
Here the Chinese sign PI has its comparable
in PĪLE "duck" in Latvian, the hieroglyph used.

Chinese KUE'I "stride" 15 = Pharaonic DOUAMOUTEF 13

Douamoutef is a mistranscription by the Egyptologists.
KAIJA in Latvian means "gull" and KAJA means leg and GAJA
means "gait" or "stride". The hieroglyph is a gull. Looks like Cetus and Pisces together originally formed a flying gull, probably fishing in the sea.
The full reading of the hieroglyph is correctly - Kai-ja-duo-ta
which must be *<klaidota "vagabond").

Chinese LOU "tether" 16 = Pharaonic KEBHSENOUF 14

Kebhsenouf is another mistranscription by the Egyptologists - the hieroglyph is
"pouring liquid" which is Latvian LIJ, LEJ "to pour". This is Sumero-Babylonian
LU.CHUNGA, Aries, the farm hand at the head of his cow,
see Werner Papke, Die Sterne von Babylon, later the star HAMAL.

Chinese WEI ‚€œstomach of the cow‚€ 17 = Pharaonic THOT 15

This is also Latvian TAUTas = PERSEUS, the 9 "sons of god" as opposed to
the "daughters of god" (Pleiades). Perseus is the bough of "Joseph" in the Bible,
when Jacob divides the heaven into the twelve houses (tribes).
The Pharaonic THOT as a the word for IBIS derives from the ancient Indo-European
on the basis of the Latvian word TOTILBIS for "ibis",
a word which has simply been split in half.

Chinese 18 MAO = Pharaonic Egyptian SOPD 16

This is Sumero-Babylonian MUL-MUL "Pleiades" (Werner Papke)
 which is also Latvian SIETiņ° or SEPTiņi "the seven",
i.e. the seven Sisters, the Pleiades.

CHINESE 19 PI "end" = Pharaonic HAKOU 17 "the Hyades"

These stars marked the node of the ecliptic 2340 BC, whence "end".
Basically the same as HAK 21 "well" since Latvian AKA means "well"
AQUA derives from this as a "source of water" in Latin, because ancient water words drived from and referred to the "sources" of water, not necessarily to "wetness".

Chinese 20 TSUI "beak" and Chinese 21 TS'AN "three"
= Pharaonic IR MA OUA 18 and MA-N-TF 19
as well as  Pharaonic 20 IR.NIDS.F

IR is just a poor Egyptologists' reading of Orion using only the "eye" symbol as IR.
Early Pharaonic comparables (from Babylon) also had a bird at this position
and not a man, i.e. the
JAB-IRU or "BA(R)-bird"
whence the cubit reading IR at these positions.

The rest of the current reading is garble by the Egyptologists.
The correct reading for the IR...MA...QUA is ARAJINA "the planter, sower's"
plus BAR- VAR- "arm" viz. "staff".

MA-N-TF is incorrect and is actually written in the hieroglyphs with the symbols
for ir-n mies-t-tev. i.e. ARĀJIŅA MIESA in Latvian "Orion's corpus",
whence even today the star MEISSA in Orion (the star between Betelgeuse
and Bellatrix). Pharaonic 20 IR (Orion) NIDS.F is completely misread,
since we have the DJ-symbol (the cobra. Latvian ČŪSKA (CHOO-ska),
then the S-symbol for the folded cloth (Latvian SEGA -- SE-ga, SA-rga)
and TEV for the crawling serpent (Latvian UODZE). The reading is then
DJ-UOS-TA which is Latvian JOSTA "belt", i.e. the Belt of Orion.

Chinese 22 CHING "well" and Chinese 23 KUEI "ghost"
are Pharaonic 21 HAK

22 CHING "well" defines this constellation's shape well, i.e. Gemini, as a thin deep well
rather than twins. Now, we have sa-KIN-KIN at this position on the
Abydos Palette
of Cities and the Latvian term for well is AKA whence Pharaonic HAK, and whence later Latin AQUA, from this source of water. 22 and 23 will be the "large twins" and the "small twins" as found on the MUL.APIN tablets as well.

Chines 24 LIU in Hydra-Leo = Pharaonic SOPEDOU 22
which is SIRIUS

Sirius rises heliacally after the stars of Gemini.  This is Pharaonic SOPDET "Sirius"
which is Latvian SPĪD, or SPĪDĒT meaning "to shine", i.e. the brightest star in the heavens. This is VERY CLEAR.

Chinese 25 HSING "star" = Pharaonic 23 SBA or SIB "star"

This is Latvian ZIB- "to shine, sparkle like a star, flash".
In this context, this must be the star Regulus in Leo.

Then you have the well-known "straight base line"
or "extension" from Regulus
to the haunch stars of Leo (Chort and Duhr (Zosma)
along the bottom of Leo,  whence

Chinese 26 CHANG "extend" = Pharaonic 24 ONURIS as CHORT

Pharaonic ONURIS 24 is a misreading for DUHRis which is Latvian DURIS, door,
since these were the stars at the Summer Solstice in 2340 BC.

Chinese 27 YI "wing" = Pharaonic 25 HERIOUA
(Indo-Euruopean *al- for "fly, altitude,etc."),

Latvian ĀRA "outside, air". Crater is the constellation.

Chinese 28 CHEN "sorrowful" = Pharaonic 26 SHEPES.

This is a clear misreading by the Egyptologists since the SH-P-S hieroglyph
(in Latvian SPĒKS "strength, power, might")
refers to a position of authority, but does not show an arm raised.
Rather, this would seem to be more like the hieroglyph for "cowherd, watchman"
which is Pharaonic SRW- a word in Latvian which is SARg- "watch" or SĒR- "to sorrow" and there is a similar term HR for a type of seat which the Egyptologists call a "butcher's block". This square seat fits well with the form of CORVUS.

Chinese 1 CHUEN "horn" is Pharaonic 27 XEM = MIN,
obviously Spica and Virgo

This is a misreading by the Egyptologists, since this is the hieroglyph i3t, i.e. IRT,
(see Maria Carmela Betro's  books on the hieroglyphs in German and Italian,
p. 208 of the German version), sort of a "balance stand", so that IRT = VIRGo.
The meaning "horn" is in a VIRGo type word, Latvian RaGs, "horn"

Chinese 2 K'ANG "neck"
is Pharaonic 28 W W = ou ou

This is the hieroglyph of two chicks, in German WAchtel-KUEKen
and Latvian Vista "hen" and Cālis "chick", so that the terms hen and chicken were probably used interchangeably at some time. German WACHtel probably is related to Latvian VĀJŠ "weak, feeble". Since German KUEKen is like Latvian KAKlis "neck", that might be the connection to the Chinese K'ANG. In any case, the WW is obviously BOOTES, to which compare Latvian PUTNIS "bird".

Chinese 3 Ti "bottom" = Pharaonic 1 ‚€œRa‚€

This is like Latvian Dibens "bottom", i.e. a position "below." I think this is Crux (which at 30 degrees N, nodes with Hamal at Aries rising - i.e. the Vernal Equinox in 2340 BC). When Crux sets in the West 2340 BC, the Southern Horizon is then also directly at the Autumnal Equinox. (Using the Heifetz Planisphere)

Chinese 4 FANG "house" is Pharaonic 2 SHOU

This is the constellation Lupus, which is Latvian LAPA "leaf", LAPAS "leaves", the Pharaonic hieroglyph being a leaf or sheaf of grain. Pharaonic SHOU is probably related to Latvian AUZA "oats" and AUSS "ear".

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