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Akkadian Language 
Indo-European Demonstrative Pronouns
in the Latvian Language

and compared to Akkadian



Akkadian

Latvian

 Meaning

SHA

šā (pronounced sha)

his

SHI

šī (pronounced shi)

her

SHU-U

šo (pronounced shuo)

 their



The Linguistics Research Center
at the University of Texas at Austin
in Baltic Online, Lesson 10: Latvian,
by Lilita Zalkalns, Peteris Vanags, and Jonathan Slocum
writes inter alia as follows
regarding the demonstrative pronouns in Latvian:

[beginning of cited material]
Demonstrative Pronouns


The basic demonstrative pronouns are:



Masculine Feminine
'this'
šis šī
'that' tas
'this kind' šāds
šāda
'that kind'
tāds tāda

šis/šā«, tas/tā
are declined according to the paradigms below.[*]

Singular
Masc.
Masc.
Fem. Fem.
Nom.
šis
tas
šī
Gen. šī/šā

šīs/šās
tās
Dat.
šim
tam
šai
tai
Acc. šo
to šo to
Loc. šajā tajā šajā tajā

šai tai šai tai

šinī tanī šinī tanī
Plural Masc. Masc. Fem. Fem.
Nom. šie
tie šīs/šās tās
Gen. šo to šo to
Dat. šiem tiem šīm tām
Acc. šos tos šīs/šās tās
Loc.
šajos
tajos šajās tajā

šais tais šais tais

šinīs tanīs šinīs tanīs
...
[*note above that: "Of the three parallel forms in the locative,
the nethermost locatives šinī/tanī, šinīs/tanīs are used in colloquial style"]
...
Other demonstrative pronouns are:


Masculine Feminine
'this here'
  šitas
šitā
'this kind here'
  šitāds šitāda
...
In older texts and in certain dialects, the older dative plural forms *tiems, *šiems, *tāms, *šāms, *šīms have been retained.

[end of cited material]


Latvian demonstrative pronouns have similarity to Akkadian word endings and also bear a great resemblance to Latvian word endings.

That is interesting because of Franz Bopp's and von Schloezer's -- in our opinion correct -- view that the Indo-European inflected endings can be traced to the agglutinative affixation of pronouns to root words.


For example, such pronomial endings
are agglutinated to root terms to form nouns
meaning the "act"
of doing or being someting,
e.g. Latvian
ĒST "to eat" but ĒŠANA ("the act of eating" i.e. ĒS(T)-Š ANA)

IET "to go" but IEŠANA ("the act of going" i.e. IE(T)-ŠANA)

DZĪVOŠANA ("the act of living" where DZĪVE = "life")

SĀKŠANA (" the act of beginning" where SĀK="start")

(note: the Latvian word SAKNE "root" of course derives from "start", showing how basic roots here are close to their origins)

Similar endings are found in Sumerian and Akkadian texts.



If we now compare demonstrative pronouns
to Latvian inflected endings,
we find many correspondences, e.g.


Latvian LŪK-
"to look, to examine, to check out"
and thus
ES LŪKOŠOS
TU LŪKOSIES
MES LŪKOSIMIES
(I, You, We shall look)

Latvian LIK- "to put, place, LAY down"
and thus
ES LIKŠU
TU LIKSI
MES LIKSIM
(I, You, We shall put, place)

Similar are the agglutinated endings of the
Latvian emphatic pronoun PATS, PATI ("the self")**

  Masculine
     Feminine

Case

singular

plural

singular

plural

N.

PATS

PAŠI

PATI

PAŠAS

G.

PAŠA

PAŠU

PAŠAS

PAŠU

D.

PAŠAM

PAŠIEM

PAŠAI

PAŠĀM

A.

PAŠU

PAŠUS

PAŠU

PAŠAS

Instr.

ar PAŠU

ar PAŠIEM

ar PAŠU

ar PAŠĀM

Loc.

PAŠĀ

PAŠOS

PAŠĀ

PAŠĀS


*
See Dzintra Paegle, Latviešu literārās valodas morfoloģija.

There is no doubt in the above example about the agglutination
of demonstrative pronouns to form words via an additive process
that linguists have later categorized as inflection.

We find similar developments for Latvian
TAS ("that") and TIE ("those, they")


If we combine the demonstrative pronouns here with the
Latvian word MAN meaning "mine" we get, e.g. MAN-TA,
MAN-TAS meaning property or "mine that", i.e. MAN
plus the demonstrative pronoun, whence MANTAM,
dative property i.e. of property, as a combination of MAN
"mine" and TAM "dative demonstrative pronoun, or
plural TIEM found in English as THEM, German DEM".
 


This view also explains irregularities which derive from synthetic adding
of one-syllable words which were NOT pronouns, e.g. Latvian MANTOT
("to inherit, get property") as a combination of MAN "mine" and DOT
"to give", i.e. "give to me", found then with the demonstrative pronoun
at the end in MANTOŠANA (MAN-DO-ŠANA)
"the act of inheriting" literally "me give it").
 


Grammatical linguistic "purists"
may try to argue that the root word in the above example
is actually mant- and not man-
but this attempt to escape the obvious agglutination fails.


Rather,
our analysis is substantiated by the complex of words around
Latvian AIZDOT ("to lend", literally "out give")
  whence AIZDOŠANA (AIZ-DO-ŠANA "the act of lending")
about which there is no dispute
that this is a combination of the prefix AIZ "out" and DOT "to give".

Hence, the analysis stands on its own, also for man-.
 


Hence, all accepted notions about the origin of inflection
in Indo-European are incorrect as are the myriad of false
etymologies based on erroneous Indo-European roots
constructed on the basis of such foolish fallacies
.
 



Go the Akkadian Agushaya Hymn




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