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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

Ancient World LexiLine? Logo Timeline
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning

Speculative Timeline
of the Ancient World
by Astronomy

This is a timeline in development.


Event or King


8957 BC

Pleiades at the Winter Solstice
in the Cave of the Dead Man

The mainstream dates this earlier,
but we see big problems with that dating.
Charcoal in the caves could date from earlier use of the cave by man and is no proof the paintings are equally old and, indeed, as written at, "the charcoal washed into the cave and found immediately below the calcited basins of the Hall of the Bulls and the Passageway, together with that recovered from the debris cone in the entrance woe, showed a possible occupation of the site during the Mesolithic. This last attempt to enter the cave, which was perhaps merely an occupation close to the entrance, has left absolutely no trace of portable objects or colouring matter. The weighted mean of the five more recent dates is 8380 ± 60 BP."
That is close to the date of our astronomical analysis of the paintings as represented in the painting at the Cave of the Dead Man at Lascaux.


7497 BC

Cave Painting Planisphere at Ignatievka
Rock Planisphere of Lake Onega in the Hermitage


6037 BC

Sahara Rock Drawings


4577 BC

Rock Sky Map, White Sea, Staraya Zalavruga, Karelia



Start of the Calender

Calendric Genesis = Adam = Odin = Menes
=  Deneb Al Giedi in Capricorn
Winter Solstice, 3117 BC
Conjunction and Eclipses
of the Sun, Moon and Jupiter.
The Moon and Sun repeat here every 1460 years.

This date marks the date of the start of Pharaonic Egyptian, Biblical, Hindu and Maya Calendars - as demonstrated in detail on the separate pages which follow - the lengths of "reign" derive from Pharaonic dynasties listed on monuments, hieroglyphs and papyri. The monument of Khasekhemwy is e.g. very important. The pharaonic reigns correspond to star reigns.


Start of the Calender

Creator of the Calender

Narmer = Naram-Sin = Nara-Simsah = Scorpion King = Aldebaran /Antares (creator of the 1st calender merging earth and heaven - "the two lands" - by astronomical "hermetic" geodetics as Scorpio marks Autumn Equinox in 3117 BC

Creator of the Calender

3117 BC

Hor-Aha = Hor-Vandillus = Seth = Athothis = Orion
(Hor-Aha = King Orry = legendary King Arthur)

Year 0

3054 BC

Athothis II = Osiris = Kenkenis = Cain = Canis Major


2997 BC

Athothis III = Djed = Gemini (Abel)


2967 BC

Enos = Den = Cancer


2945 BC

Mahalaleel = MaLikiyy = Jared = Lugal = Leo


2925 BC

Jared = (Djer?) = Hydra


2900 BC

Enoch = Anedjib = Denebola


2880 BC

Methuselah = Semerchet = Coma Berenices
= Sechem-Ka and Merneith


2865 BC

Qa'a = Lamech = Spica



Event or King    


November 19, 2837 Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the sky location Antares / Dschubba in Scorpio = Hetep Sekhemwy

2825 BC

= Antares viz. Dschubba = Noah


2786 BC

Shem = Kaiekos = Raneb
= the Prong of Sagittarius


2740 BC

Arphaxad = Nynetjer
= Enif (viz. Markab) = Pegasus
(Sometimes the star to start is used but sometimes also the star to end the reign was used by the ancients.)


2720 BC

Sechemib = Weneg = Salah = Shalish = Tlas = Al Dalw = the Water Bucket of Aquarius


2680 BC

Eber = Sethenis = Seth-Peribsen
= Al  Sharatan = Aries


2663 BC

Khasekhem (variant of Khasekhemwy)


2638 BC

Peleg = Khasekhemwy = Pleiades viz. Aldebaran and the Hyades (Please Note - for specialists - After Khasekhemwy, Manetho follows the stellar reigns of the stars, rather than the length of reigns as given on the Turin Canon.)


2638 BC

Khasekhemwy makes the first intercalation for the tropical year of 365.25 days in the 480th running year after 3117 BC and thus sets a precedent for such intercalation every 480 years.
In 480 years 120 leap days must be added to a solar calendar of 365 days to get it in sync with the tropical year (star time). The total lengths of reigns for the remaining "Old Kingdom" Pharaohs on the Turin Canon of Kings is also ca. 480 years and this brings the Old Kingdom to an end on 2157 BC - according to the Turin Canon. The 120-day intercalation made at this time in Egypt has been misinterpreted as 120 "years" by the Egyptologists and assigned to the 9th and 10th Dynasties (ca. 2160-2040 BC in Clayton's Chronicle of the Pharaohs), which is also called the First Intermediate Period. The Egyptologists have erred. Similar 120-day intercalations were made at 480-year intervals in 1677 BC (2nd Intermediate Period and period of the Hyksos) , in 1197 BC (this is Sethos, also known as King David in the Bible), 717 BC (Reign of Numa Pompilius, the 1st calendric king of Rome, begins), and 237 BC (restoration of the Etruscan "secular games" in Rome). It must be noted however that the Turin Canon did not properly understand the division of Kingdoms. One kingdom was the Metonic Cycle (19 years) times the Saros Cycle (18 years) x 2 = 684 years, as seen on ancient monuments.
See Narmer Heb-Sed


April 1, 2471 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades and the red star Aldebaran = Red Pyramid of Snofru
September 2, 2469 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo = Bent Pyramid and why there is west high entrance here, such as not found in any other pyramid

2433 BC

The Great Geodetic Pyramids of Giza are built, to calculate and correct for precession, starting with the Cheops Pyramid. Go to the Great Pyramid
July 25, 2430 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Zosma and Chort (these are marked by the Kings and Queens Chambers at the Great Pyramid and by the Sphinx = Leo)


March 23, 2340 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades under the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is RA-thosis (= Chephren, Khaf-RA).


December 20, 2289 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the boat of Capricorn with a bird (Aquila) in the eclipse boat.


    Event or King    


2159 BC
Antef I (also written Intef)

First Intermediate Period of 120 years (sic). Actually, 120 days are intercalated for the tropical year. June 29, 2159 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the middle of Cancer. Antev refers to the (astronomical) high priest but perhaps also means an eclipse.

(2 x 480 actually 2 x 479)

2079 BC
Antef II

September 11, 2079 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo (whence the bushy hieroglyph).

2044 BC
Antef III

April 20, 2044 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is ANtef III since ENA means eclipse. The eclipse - according to Pharaonic records - occurred in the 39th year of the reign of Mentuhotep, so that Mentuhotep's reign started 2083 BC.


1884 BC

September 15, 1884 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo. This was the expedition taken in the 24th year of Amenemhet II's reign and the 4th year of Senwosret's concurrent reign - the son was taken along to see the eclipse, making the start of Amenemhet II's reign at 1908 BC.


1749 BC

Papyrus of Ebers
Correction for Precession

(2 x 684)

1741 BC
Antef IV

December 21, 1741 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the boat of Capricorn = Chendjer


1707 BC

Birth of Moses in the reign of Chaneferre, so Artapanus.


1699 BC

April 16, 1699 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV Chaneferre, who ruled 10 years, during whose reign Moses was born, according to Artapanus, so this puts the start of the reign of Chaneferre at 1709 BC. His cartouche shows the Sun, Moon and throat sign - i.e. eclipse.


1677 BC

Second Intermediate Period
Hyksos = Midianites

(3 x 480)

August 4
1627 BC

Exodus, the Volcano Santorin explodes on Thera This volcanic activity is marked by a conjunction of Sun, Jupiter, Venus and Mars at the tail of Leo in August 4, 1627 BC.
Moses is 80 at this time according to the sources and lives to be 83. Joshua (Ahmose) is king and rules 57 years to 1570 BC.


1533 BC

May 9, 1533 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the upraised right arm of Orion (near Aldebaran) below the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is Amenhotep I and his cartouche shows the arm of Orion.

Amenhotep I

1478 BC

June 1, 1478 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. The "pot" for the "well of Gemini" is shown in the cartouche of Hatshepsut, co-regent with son Thutmosis III.

Hatshepsut Thutmosis III

1338 BC

May 14, 1338 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the upraised right arm of Orion. This is Amenhotep III. In the cartouche the upraised arm of Orion is the staff of Orion.

Amenhotep III

1258 BC

July 27, 1258 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Regulus in Leo. This was later the origin of "sparkling Aton" (it must have been a coronal eclipse, as Starry Night Pro seems to also show) applied later to Echnaton (Akhenaten), called King SAUL because his birth occurred with an eclipse in the kingly sign of the lion. The solar eclipse probably passed over Amarna, which was why the capital was later moved to Amarna.

Amenhotep IV
Echnaton (Akhenaten)

1197 BC

King David (= Sethos I who was Ramses I)
begins a rule of 40 years. These years are shown in the famous hall of records of Sethos.

(4 x 480)

1157 BC

Ramses II (= King Solomon)
begins a rule of 67 years.
This is the August 19, 1157 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt near Spica in Virgo, on a line with MIZAR (=MESES in Rameses)

Ramses II
1152 BC

The Battle of Kadesh takes place in the 5th year of the reign of King Solomon (Ramses II), allegedly ca. 480 years after Exodus (so the Bible), but it appears that the start of the reign of Ramses is 480 years after Exodus..

Battle of Kadesh 
1129 BC

February 14, 1129 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt below the back end of Pisces, under Pegasus, the Great Square. In the 29th year of the reign of Ramses II at Abu Simbel - marking the reign of Ramses II - there is an entry uncertainly identified by the Egyptologists as an "earthquake" It is a solar eclipse.

Abu Simbel
1090 BC

Merenptah = Rehoboam
Priam (King of Lydia, Troy) = Jeroboam. This rivalry leads to the Trojan War in this period.

 Merenptah Rehoboam Priam Jeroboam
1063 BC

July 31, 1063 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Chort and Zosma in Leo. This is shown in the cartouche of Pharaoh Siptah and perhaps the cartouche of Sethnacht also marked this event.

 Siptah Sethnacht
1060 BC

Shishak = Ramses III. Shishak's was not an Egyptian, as his building of a Syrian migdol in Egypt shows. This is the period of the war against the sea peoples, the "Trojan War"

Ramses III
Trojan War
957 BC

May 31, 957 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. This is the Pharaoh Herihor.

948 BC

May 22, 948 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt above Orion. This is the Pharaoh Pinodjem.

932 BC

January 27, 932 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Markab in Pegasus. This is the Pharaoh Masaharta.

831 BC

August 15, 831 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Denebola in Leo. The end tail star of Leo is shown as the tail in the cartouche of Psusennes II and III (same person?). Latvian PUS-ENAS would mean "half an eclipse, partial eclipse" = PSUSENNES.


716 BC 

Start of the reign of Numa Pompilius,
the 1st calendric king of Rome, begins

(5 x 480)

636 BC

August 19, 636 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Denebola in Leo. This is Pharaoh Tefnacht.

582 BC

September 21, 582 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo. This unusual heavenly conjunction involved an occultation of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury. Taking the Moon or the Sun to be the host, there were "four visitors". These four "visitors" are glorified in the monument of Pianchi (Peje).

517 BC

March 28, 517 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Sheratan in Aries. This is Taharqa (Aries) going on to Tanutamani (Taurus).

502 BC

December 4, 502 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus I.

493 BC

November 24, 493 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus II.


236 BC

Restoration of the Etruscan
"Secular (calendric) Games" in Rome

(6 x 480)

Go to Khasekhemwy
Go to Kings after Khasekhemwy


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