

Piedras
Negras Maya
Calendar
THE MAYA CALENDAR
PIEDRAS NEGRAS
HALLEY'S COMET
Just as in the
Pharaonic Egyptian calendar
December 25, 3117 BC is the correct starting date
for the Maya
calendar (corrected for the tropical year),
as will be demonstrated below.
Maya scholars have
failed to adjust the continuous count of solar days of the Maya Long
Count to a "longer" count including intercalation for the tropical
year. When this adjustment is made, the Maya and Pharaonic calendars
both start on December 25, 3117 BC (3116 by astronomy).
Maya scholars start
the Maya calendar
on a Maya date called 4 Ahau 8 Cumku.
Both of these calendric glyphs (Ahau and Cumku) fall at the "end" of
the Maya series of days and months in the Maya system, i.e. at the
beginning of new eras, and we thus expect a Solstice or Equinox at this
point in Maya calendration. Indeed, the Encylcopaedia Britannica
writes at "Calendar" about the Maya system as follows:
"The 365day
year was divided into 18 named months of 20 days each, with an
additional five days ... named Uayeb. In late times, the Maya named the
years after their first days. Since both the year and number (20) of
the names of days are divisible by five, only four names combined with
13 numbers could begin the year. These were called Year Bearers and
were assigned in order to the four quarters of the world with their
four associated colours."
The calendar, with
adjustments for the tropical year, starts on Julian date 583297. The
Maya Calendar allegedly started on Julian date 584283. The Maya date is
correlated to the alleged foundation of Merida, Yucatan on November 14,
1539 close to the date of the Long Count Maya katun
11.16.0.0.0 = 11 baktuns, 16 katuns, 0 tuns, 0
uinals, and 0 kins.
In Maya chronology,
1 baktun = 144000 days, 1 katun = 7200 days, 1 tun = 360 days, 1 uinal
= 20 days, 1 kin = 1 day. The Maya Data 11.16.0.0.0 as a
chronological date thus involves the following calculation:
11 x 144000 days (=1584000 days) + 16 x 7200 days (=115200 days) =
1699200 days
i.e. 1699200 continous solar days have elapsed since the Long Count
katun 0.0.0.0.0.
This is a continous count WITHOUT adjustment for the tropical year.
Let us now adjust that figure for the tropical year  which will give
us the correct "astronomical", i.e. "star date".
How many 365day years are there in 1699200 days? = 4655 years. BUT,
4655 years of ca 365.25days (actually 365.22 days) = 1700238 days
rather than 1699200 days.
1700238 days plus the Julian date 583297 (Dec. 25, 3117 BC) as the
start of the calendar gives Julian date 2283535 and that is in fact the
expected Solstice date, December 25, 1539 AD at Merida.
The Merida "Maya" date of November 14, 1539 AD should thus actually be
December 25, 1539 AD, and that is the correct Long Count Maya katun
11.16.0.0.0. The 365day year katun date must simply be converted to
365.25day years, which gives an identical starting date to the
Pharaonic Calendar. They ARE related.
Did the Maya
Adjust Their Calendar for the Tropical Year?
Were the Maya themselves aware of this potential error in their
calendration? Did they make intercalary notations as "leapyear type of
periods" between the solar and tropical years in their system?
Yes  as demonstrated here  they did. In fact, they had apparently
adjusted for it periodically. As the Encyclopaedia Britannica notes,
the Maya used an "InitialSeries" notation (abbreviated IS) on its
dates, referring the marked date back to the start of the calendar. The
oldest known such IS (Initial Series) notation is Stele 29 at Tikal in
Guatemala which is written
IS. 8.12.14.8.15, a date which falls 1243615 days after the start of
the calendar at 4 Ahau 8 Cumku.
Can we determine
when that was? We can.
Often in Maya dating of the socalled Supplementary Series, the
socalled IS (Initial Series date) is preceded by a notation of 819
days.
This notation of 819 days is thought by Maya scholars to be merely a
magical multiple of 13, 9 and 7, which equals 819.
But as shown here for the first time, these 819 days are the
intercalation for the tropical year. This intercalation was apparently
made at Tikal, Guatemala on January 25, 293 (Julian date 1828100) and
used in the Supplementary Series of dates.
The Tikal IS (Initial Series) date of 1243615 days after the start of
the Maya calendar is a sum of 3407.16438 years of 365days whereas
1243615 days of ca. 365.2422day years equals 3404.90501 years, a
difference of ca. 2.25 years, which is ca. 820 days, i.e. the
intercalary figure of 819.
Thus, these 819
days were added to the continuous solar day count on January 25, 293 AD
for the Maya Supplementary Series of dates. The continous count itself
was not intercalated.
The Pharaonic and
Maya calendars both started
on December 25, 3117 BC viz. 3116 by astronomy.
The 293 AD date at Tikal was probably chosen
because it involved 48 years of intercalation for precession
 i.e 48 degrees of precession x 72 years = 3456 years so that
3116 BC + 293 AD= 3409 years total and 3409 + 48 = 3457 years.
USE OF THE METONIC
CYCLE
How did the Maya,
the Hebrews, the Pharaohs
and the Vedic Sanskrit Hindus
use the Metonic Cycle for longterm calendration?
It is very simple once one sees the numbers,
which allow very accurate calculations 
without fractions or decimals 
using the principle of common denominators.

Period

multiplied by

= number of days

divided by

= days

calendric use

3800 years

x 360 days

= 1368000 days

/ 19

= 72000

= half a Baktun

3800 years

x 365 days

= 1387000 days

/19

= 73000

solar years

3800 years

x 365.25 days

= 1387950 days

/19

= 73050

star years

Since a complete
Maya baktun is 144000 days
(compare to the halfBaktun of 72000 days in the line above),
a full cycle of the above system is 100 x 76 years = 7600 years.
7600 years are 2736000 days of a
schematic 360day year
which equals = 19 Baktuns. This formed the Maya calendar.
It made calendration easy by common divisors.
19 Baktuns

= 380 Katuns

/19

= 20

/20

= 1





380 Katuns

= 7600 tuns

/19

= 400

/20

= 20

/ 20

= 1



7600 Tuns

= 136800 uinals

/19

= 7200

/20

= 360

/ 20

= 18

/18

=1

136800 Uinals

= 2736000 days

/19

=144000

/20

= 7200

/ 20

= 360

/18

=20

.MAYA STELE 3 PIEDRAS NEGRAS
CORRECTED READING
The Corrected
Reading of Maya Stele 3 of Piedras Negras
This corrected
reading of the CholMaya Stele 3 of Piedras Negras
is based on my discovery of the 819day intercalation for the tropical
year made at Tikal, Guatemala and the recognition that the Maya
Calendar begins on December 25, 3117 BC. This article adds evidence to
the correctness of that date.
The current reading
of Maya Stele 3 of Piedras Negras [with glyphs] by Maya scholars is
found in Michael D. Coe's book Breaking the Maya Code,
pp. 368372 of the German version Das Geheimnis der MayaSchrift.
This Stele is
erroneously thought to apply to the birth and life of a "human" female
called Katun Ahau and her daughter Kin Ahau, but it is actually a stele
for the "birth"
of a new CALENDRIC Katun Ahau.
As noted at the end
of Stele 3 Piedras Negras, the new Katun Ahau
began on 9.14.0.0.0 .. 6 Ahau 13 Muan,
which was 1396800 days after December 25, 3117 BC or 583297 + 1396800
= Julian date 1980097 which is March 19, 709 AD, exactly at the
point
where the Sun is at the crossing of the Celestial Equator and the
Ecliptic.
The Piedras Negras
date of 9.12.2.0.16 .. 5 Cib 15 Yaxkin
at the start of Stele 3 is NOT the date
 as reported by Coe  of July 7, 674 AD,
but is rather October 21, 671 AD.
The Maya Stele 3
Piedras Negras date
is correctly calculated as 9 x 144000 days
plus 12 x 7200 days + 2 x 360 days + 0 + 16 days
= 1296000 + 86400 + 720 + 0 + 16 = 1383136 days.
This date is a
continuous solar count without intercalation
so it is added to the Julian Date for the start of the Maya calendar
(December 25, 3117 BC), i.e. Julian Date 583297 which  added to
1383136 
gives a Julian Date of 1966433, or October 21, 671 AD for Stele 3
at Piedras Negras. This is Libra, the Maya NAH, 7th night station,
 which puts on its "headband"  the term NAH perhaps found
in Chinese as Se HAN, and Semitic MizNAIm "Libra".
The stele states
further that it was 27 days after the Full Moon
at the Vernal Equinox (the cross of the Celestial Equator and Ecliptic)
at Spica in Virgo  this was Julian date 1966406 on September 24, 671
AD.
Two months of 29
days after Julian date 1966433 pass and the
"three white mountain god" appeared: This is the prong of Sagittarius
on December 18, 671 AD on Julian date 1966491
[Since there is an apparent error of 44 days later, it may be that not
58 days are added here but only 14, since 58  14 = 14 would take care
of the error. The end result, however, stays the same.]
14 Yaxkin.
10 Uinal and 12 Tun
pass
10 x 20 = 200 days and 12 x 360 = 4320 days
= 4520 days
4520 added to 1966491 = Julian date 1971011
or Maya date 9.12.14.13.14 .. 1 Cib 14 Kankin
This (1971011) puts
the Sun at the Pleiades on May 3, 684 AD
where she is decorated with
the great Sun, Yo' Acnal.
[There is a conjunction here with Jupiter at this date and a New Moon
at the Pleiades on April 20, 684 AD, Julian date 1970998.]
10 Kin 11 Uinal 1
Tun and 1 Katun pass (4 Cimi 14 Uo)
10 x 1 = 10, 11 x 20 = 220, 1 Tun = 360= 590 days total
1 Katun = 7200 days = 7790 days
Kin Ahau was allegedly born on August 31, 705 AD,
Julian date 1978801 at Virgo.
The stele calls this the tortoise of heaven.
14 Kin 8 Uinal and
3 Tun pass ... 11 Imix 14 Yax
14 x 1 = 14, 8 x 20 = 160, 3 x 360 = 1080 = 1254 days
This is February 5, 709 AD Julian date 1980055 at Aquarius.
The Stele states
that 5 Tun and 1 Katun have passed
since the beginning of the rule of Yo'Acnal so that 5 x 360 = 1800
and 1 x 7200 = 7200 so that 1800 + 7200 = 9000 days.
but 7790 + 1254 above give 9044 days.
The stele
then states at this point that 9000 days have passed
since the start of the rule of Yo´Acnal (rather than 9044).
Hence rather than 1980055
the 9000 days end 44 days previously at Julian day 1980011 which
is 9000 days after 1971011, The Winter Solstice at December 23, 708 AD.
19 Kin and 4 Uinal
pass ... 6 Ahau 13 Muan
19 x 1 = 19 and 4 x 20 = 80 = 99 days
These are apparently calculated from Julian day 1980011
1980011 plus 99 days = 1980110
This gives a date of April 1, 709 AD.
If the 9000 days are calculated back to the Sun at the Pleiades
this then gives a date of March 19, 709 AD.
This is the date given for 9.14.0.0.0 .. 6 Ahau 13 Muan
at the very beginning of this article.
The stele closes by
writing
6 Ahau 13 Muan ends.
The 14th Katun begins.

.FURTHER PROOF
HALLEY'S COMET AND MAYA CHRONOLOGY
The current Maya
chronology includes a spectacular event called the Entrada of 378, for
the arrival at Tikal of a lord called Siayaj K'ak' (meaning and
translated "Fire Born" by the Mayanolgists), dated to January 31, 378
by the Mayanologists.
At the same time,
the "king" Chak Tok Ich'aak allegedly passed away on January 15, 378
(8.17.1.4.12)  whose name means "Great Burning Claw". This Entrada
(Entrance) of Siyaj K'ak' took place on January 31, 378 according to
mainstream Mayanology  indeed, the appearance of this mysterious "fire
born" is documented 8 days earlier and his "route" is even traced in
Maya records.
Now  if this were
a HEAVENLY BODY it would be a fiery comet  AND it is a comet, Halley's
Comet, which came very close to earth in what the serious astronomers
today estimate to be 374 A.D. According to MY chronology, the Maya date
January 31, 378 is correctly May 4, 375 A.D. and this is the Maya
record of the sighting of this very near passage of Halley's Comet, one
of the closest to Earth on record.
We find Halley
returns at ca. 76year multiples in the names of Maya "rulers"....
though all the mainstream dates are off by the error of 2+years in
mainstream chronology which I have discussed above.
Halley is the
Accession of K'an Chitam in 458 A.D.  actually, this was 2+ years
earlier. Ruler "Bird Claw?"  also known as "Animal Skull I"  this is
Halley again  is dated by Mayanologists to between ca. 527 and 537 A.D.
Ca. 76 years we
then have Halley again as Animal Skull II.
Halley appears
again as the illustrious king Yich'aak K'ak' (Fiery Claw) whose "flint
and shield" are brought down by Jasaw Chan K'awiil I on (sic) August 5,
695 A.D.  but of course this is 2+ years earlier in fact.
So, Halley has been
clearly identified, and mainstream Maya chronology is off by the period
of time I have previously described in great detail in other LexiLine
postings.




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