for an update
and see lexi760.htm for an absolute chronology -
(speculative thoughts about the use of the Great Pyramid and other
pyramids for astronomical and land survey purposes)
Were the pyramids
used to measure the sky and the Earth in the best hermetic tradition,
i.e. "as above, so below"?
USED FOR GEODETIC SURVEY?
can imagine how the ancients could have used the form of the pyramid
surveying. The pyramid can be viewed as a "mathematical form" derived
out of land
Bisecting angle lines to form opposite 90 degree angles
as well as the creation of trapezoidal quadrants would also have
permitted an easier handling of the measurements.
A few selected levels
of the otherwise white limestone covering of the pyramids were
apparently painted red and were also of a markedly different height
than other levels, suggesting intentional geometric divisions.
COLORED RED and WHITE?
allege the entire cover of the pyramids was white - which is not true -
as Michael Haase, publisher of the magazine G.R.A.L. and author of many
articles on the building of the pyramids, clearly shows in his book, Das
Rätsel des Cheops,
where he points to pyramid hieroglyphs from the tomb of Ptahhotep in
Sakkara, having two horizontal lines drawn on them, one toward the top
and one toward the bottom of the pyramid hieroglyph.
LINES and the
also has Pepi I using a pyramid
with a line at the top
(perhaps to mark
the pyramidion - the top triangular block).
Pepi was in the 5th
dynasty, just at the start of pyramid-building.
Equally important, as
is that Ali Hassan,
chief inspector of the Giza Plateau
from 1966 to 1968, reported then that he had found
the remains of some
blocks from the outer shell
of the Great Pyramid
which clearly had red
paint on them.
SURVEY OF THE EARTH
our opinion, the painted pyramid levels marked "astrogeodetic surveying
used in connection
with the first survey of the Earth by
a survey which was recorded in the Great Pyramid,
numerous authors have alleged.
The best book in this regard is Peter Tompkins,
Secrets of the Great Pyramid.
According to Tompkins,
we know from a "cuneiform description of the
ziggurat, known as the Smith tablet ...
that each level of the ziggurat
has an area corresponding
to the standard units of land surface ..."
AS A MAP PROJECTION
writes further: "In the Great Pyramid the
Egyptians produced a system
of map projection even more sophisticated than the one incorporated in
the ziggurats. The apex of the Pyramid corresponds to the pole, the
perimeter to the equator, both in proper scale... Each flat face of the
Pyramid was designed to represent one curved quarter of the northern
hemisphere, or spherical quadrant of 90°."
What about levels of the
Great Pyramid and earth latitudes? Tompkins estimates that a degree of
latitude was 212,000 royal Egyptian cubits. 90 degrees x 212,000 royal
cubits equals 19,080,000 royal cubits. One level of the Great Pyramid's
210 levels would then ostensibly equal 1000 royal cubits on the arc of
the meridian of the earth (this is the distance from equator to the
and the PYRAMIDS
possible that the Pharaohs put their memorial temples on
the paths of solar eclipses, as e.g. Amenophis I, who was the first to
be buried in the Valley of Kings, over which an eclipse passed during
The causeways to the pyramids
- e.g. at the Giza pyrmaids -
mark the path of these eclipses
and the "shadow" of the eclipse
seen as the "ladder" to heaven,
i.e. the connector between Earth and
this gate seen primarily between Auriga and Perseus.
would appear to give us
REIGNS OF THE PHARAOHS
SOLAR ECLIPSES IN EGYPT
at PYRAMID SITES
The Pharaohs may
have put some of their
memorial temples on the paths of solar eclipses, and eclipses surely
played a role in chronology. Please note that "absolute" means "in
terms of eclipses". The dates of the eclipses are clear. Still, the
assignment of events to them is in the pioneer stage of development and
will surely need substantial correction and revision in the future.
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the cross of the ecliptic and the
celestial equator at the star Antares viz. Dschubba. This marks the
reign of the Pharaoh HETEP-SEKHEMWY
= Manetho's Boethos (Boötes) = the star Dschubba, Arabic - Jabbah,
Vedic ANUradha. The hieroglyph at Sakkara reads Anu-tris (Baltic
Andris) = Antares rather than Dschubba. That is why the three main
April 1, 2471 BC
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the cross of the ecliptic and the
celestial equator at the Pleiades / Aldebaran. Kate Spence,
Egyptologist at Cambridge, recently put the building of the Great
Pyramid to 2467 BC plus or minus 5 years based on her positioning of
the star Mizar at that time, but that is wrong. The April 1, 2471 BC
eclipse applied to the Red Pyramid
(for the red star Aldebaran) and the more northerly of the two pyramids
2469 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Spica in Virgo. This eclipse led to the building of the second of
the two pyramids of Snofru.
It is now easy to determine which of the two Snofru pyramids was built
first - about which the scholars have long disputed - the center of the
2469 eclipse was further south, and this is the Bent
July 25, 2430 BC -
Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Zosma (Duhr) and Chort at the point of the
applies to the Great Pyramid
March 23, 2340
Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the crossing of the ecliptic and celestial
equator at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and
Perseus.This would be the Pyramid of RAthosis =
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "boat of Capricorn" under Aquila.
According to the Kings after Khasekhemwy on the Turin Canon, this can
only be Unas
whose cartouche might read WA-N-AGS "eagle", i.e. "Aquila".
June 29, 2159 BC -
Antef I -
Solar Eclipse over Egypt exactly at the cross viz. middle of the
constellation of Cancer
2079 BC - Antef
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt exactly at Spica in Virgo - we know this is
Antef II rather than Antef III because the "Horus" serech shows a
"bushy" hieroglyph - Spica / Virgo.
April 20, 2044
BC - 39th year of
the reign of Mentuhotep
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the crossing of the ecliptic and
celestial equator at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between
Auriga and Perseus.
1884 BC - Amenemhet
(with sons Senwosret II and III) Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in
Virgo. This was most likely the expedition to the center of the eclipse
taken in the 24th year of Amenemhet's reign and the 4th year of
Senwosret's concurrent reign. Egyptologists call this an expedition to
punish the desert dwellers, but for that it is unlikely that he would
take a young son along. This would place the beginning of Amenemhet
II's reign at 1908 BC.
December 21, 1741 BC - Chendjer
Solar Eclipse in the Boat of Capricorn, most clearly marked with the
eclipse of Chendjer as a darkened circle next to a container-like
April 16, 1699 BC - Sobekhotep
- Solar Eclipse at the Pleiades and the crossing of the ecliptic and
the celestial equator underneath the gate to Heaven between Auriga and
Perseus. The heiroglyphs mark this as a partial sun followed by the
swallowing windpipe symbol. According to Artapanus (writing about 300
BC), Chaneferre - i.e. the Pharaoh just noted above - was the Pharaoh
during whose reign Moses
was born. No contrary evidence gives us cause to doubt this historical
record. Since Chaneferre apparently ruled only about 10 years, this
puts the birth of Moses between maximally 10 years either side of 1699
BC, and we put it at 1707 BC due to the 80-year correlation to Exodus
which we place as congruent with the explosion of Santorin ca. August
4, 1627 BC, based on astronomical considerations. Moses is later the
first king of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes as Sobek-EMSAf
a name actually written in the hieroglpyhs as "MO-SHE" (also known as
Sobekhotep VIII or Sechem-re Schedtaui). Since we know that Moses flew
from Thebes when he was around 40, this puts him in the Eastern Delta
Region of Egypt ca. 1667 BC, where Moses's Biblical Midianites are none
other than the Hyksos, i.e. the Palestinians (nomadic desert dwellers),
of whose king Moses takes one daughter as a wife. The 16th Dynasty King
known as Anather is then Gideon (so also clearly readable according to
the hieroglyphs as Hand-D-N i.e. GI-DI-N).
May 9, 1533 BC
- Solar Eclipse right above the upraised hand of Orion (near Aldebaran)
below the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is the
eclipse of Amenhotep I.
June 1, 1478 BC - Solar Eclipse in
the "pot" of Gemini. This is in the reign of Hatshepsut
and co-regent Thutmosis
May 14, 1338 BC - Solar Eclipse
at the "upraised arm of Orion" below the gate to heaven between Auriga
and Persus. This is the eclipse of Amenhotep III.
July 27, 1258 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Regulus in Leo. This is Amenhotep
IV, known as Echnaton
(Akhenaten), and as the Biblical King Saul
(Latvian SAULe`= "sun"), whose hieroglyph clearly shows an eclipsed
object. We would expect the eclipse to have passed over Amarna.
Echnaton must have seen the eclipse and resurrection of the Sun during
his reign at the kingly star Regulus to be a particularly great omen
and thereafter presented himself as the "Sun King SAULe".
August 19, 1157 BC - Solar Eclipse
near Spica and Virgo. This is Ramses II,
the Biblical King Solomon.
The RA or SAULE name is the "sun name" of the king and shows the
position of the sun. The AMUN name is the "moon name". In the case of
Ramses II the hieroglyphs in his cartouche indicate that this was the
confluence of both the sun and the moon at Virgo - an eclipse.
February 14, 1129 BC
- Solar Eclipse below the back end of Pisces, under Pegasus, the Great
Square, in the 29th year of reign of Ramses II and might be what is
marked as an "earthquake" (?) at this time at Abu Simbel.
July 31, 1063 BC - Solar Eclipse at
Zosma in Leo. This is Siptah,
clearly marked with an eclipsed round object in the hieroglyph and
perhaps the hieroglyph of Sethnacht
also marked this event.
May 31, 957 BC - Solar Eclipse
in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. This is Herihor.
May 22, 948 BC - Solar Eclipse
above Orion. This is Pinodjem.
January 27, 932 BC -
Solar Eclipse at Markab. This is Masaharta.
August 15, 831 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Denebola in Leo - the end tail star of Leo is shown as the tail in
the hieroglyph of Psusennes II
and III (same person)
AN-TEF is as ENAS = Latvian "eclipse, shade")
August 19, 636 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Denebola in Leo. This is Tefnacht.
September 21, 582 BC
- Solar Eclipse at Spica in Virgo. This is an unusual heavenly
conjunction because it also involves an occultation also of Jupiter,
Saturn, and Mercury, so that, with either the Sun or the Moon as the
host, there were four visitors. These four "visitors" are glorified in
the monument of Pianchi (Pije).
March 28, 517 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Sheratan in Aries. This is Taharqa
(Aries) going to Tanutamani (Taurus).
December 4, 502 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus I.
November 24, 493 BC - Solar Eclipse
at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus II.
The idea of eclipses as being of such great importance came from a
posting to LexiLine by ChasInca and from the internet page of Amir Bey
(whose solar eclipse information is now found at http://thenewtimesholler.com/ARCHIVE/archiveDisplay.php?ID=24).
Bey used the following sources to determine eclipses over Egypt:
Solar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East, by M. Kudlek and E.H. Mickler.
The Canon of Solar Eclipses, by J. Meeus and H. Mucke
Solar Fire 4.07, a software program developed by Esoteric Technologies
Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East by M. Kudlek and E. H. Mickler.]
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