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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

The Heb-Sed Feast LexiLine? Logo and Pharaoh Narmer
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning

HEB-SED Feasts - Pharaoh NARMER
The Calculation of 684-Year Kingdoms

Pharaoh Narmer's Heb-Sed Feasts

Pharaonic Egyptian Numbers and Symbols
as LATER standardized, but not initially

Calendration Mathematics, Astronomy
Calibration of Solar and Lunar Cycles

"The Egyptians had a decimal notation. The hieroglyphic script had distinct signs for units, tens, hundreds, etc., the numbers of each being indicated by repetition of the sign. There was no sign for zero and no positional notation, so that representation of large numbers became extremely cumbersome."
Gay Robins & Charles Shute, The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. However, scholars have failed to see that this symbolic decimal notation was not standardized in the early stages of Pharaonic civilization and that symbols were subject to divergent positional decimal application.

Above : Oldest known script of a Pharaonic Calendric Feast
(Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

One of the most amazing misreadings
in all of Egyptology relates to the very
oldest of all Pharaonic calendric inscriptions,
pictured above, as Narmer's Heb-Sed Feasts.

Here is the corrected reading.

The simple mathematics is 19 x 120,000 = 2,280,000.
(See below - numbers are bold face - graphic less prominent by intent.)

The "sitting man" hieroglyph reads "Siets, Sed, Seta"
and is the same as Babylonian "Sin "i.e. "Moon".
Compare to this Swedish seter and Latvian sēta "fence, border."

120,000 lunations x 29.5 days (the synodic month,
i.e. from one new moon to the next new moon)
is 3,540,000 days which  is exactly
10,000 lunar years of 354 days each.
19 years is the Metonic Cycle of lunations
(235 lunations = 6939 days = 19 solar years).
The Pharaohs used a schematic civil year of 360 days, so
19 x 360 = 6840 days and 19000 x 360 = 6,840,000 days,
with 6,840,000 divided by 3 equal to 2, 280,000 days.
In this manner, the Narmer Heb-Sed Feasts
(civil and lunar calendar) are reconciled with each other
by a common denominator x 3.

Now, what have the Egyptologists written before this?
Originally, the Egyptologists erroneously thought that
this was a victory celebration, with the Pharaoh Narmer
to the left, his wife in the canopy to the right, followed by
dancers and war booty, according to the Egyptologists
120,000 captives, 400,000 cattle and 1,422,000 goats.

LOL - Laughing out Loud!
That interpretation is nonsense.

Of course, these were absurdly large numbers,
particularly since
the numbers were misread.
Currently , Egyptologists recognize the Narmer script
to relate to the "heb-sed" renewal feast,
which they think took place every thirty years.
But rather than to see the clear astronomy
involved here,
the Egyptologists say the feast was held
as an agricultural "fertility feast"
and was used to "test the potency" of the king,
who was to run thrice around the compound
to prove his fitness
(a strange test for potency!)

That explanation, of course,
is equally ridiculous,
and much
in Egyptology
is really remarkably wrong.

What we do have here
is a clear astronomical calculation,
as explained at the top of this page.


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B.A. University of Nebraska; J.D. Stanford University Law School
Former Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, FFA, Trier Law School
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