I wrote the material further below
but have since changed my mind
near Tangier across from
- because of the existence
which are affiliated with the stars of Ophiuchus,
i.e. near the stars of Hercules
as I describe in my publication:
Kaulins, Andis (2007)
Tanum System - ein alteuropäisches
[The Tanum System: Ancient Seafarers as Megalithic Surveyors of Europe
Conference paper presented at the 41st Jahrestagung
des Arbeitskreises Walther Machalett, May 17, 2007.
The paper is found online at
Tanum System von Andis Kaulins 19 Juni 2007.pdf.
might indicate that the Pillars were indeed,
- because of the existence
of the nearby so-called
Cave of Hercules
then as now, located at the current Mediterranean entry.
there remain unanswered questions.
leave the text below here for record
in case it contains something useful down the road.
PILLARS OF HERACLES
- Alternative Location ?
Plato wrote of
the Grecian islands:
"Many great deluges have taken place .... the consequence is that, in
comparison of what then was, there are remaining in small islets only
the bones of the wasted body, as they may be called, all the richer and
softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeleton of
the country being left."
these "bones" ARE the "many islands" of the Mediterranean. I leave it
to the geologists to tell us how long Thera has been "above" water.
Plato certainly may have meant at least the Cyclades here, since they
paralleled the Minoan culture archaeologically (similar style of
Plato states that there was an impassable barrier of mud
for some time which prevented voyageurs from sailing to the OCEAN,
i.e.some other large connected body of water. There is no direct
Plato meant the present Atlantic Ocean. The ancients
did not know that world was round, nor did they have a world globe on
their desks. What was the "Atlantic" to them?
LANDS WITHIN THE
is known that Libya, Egypt, Tyrrhenia and Greece were ALL within the
Columns of Herakles. The "pillars of Herakles", given the limits of
Libya (surely similar geographically to modern Libya) and Terrine
(Thera), were thus at the "bottleneck" of the Mediterranean between
today's Tunisia and the island of Sicily.
Many presume Plato's Libya
referred to all of the north-African coast, but there is no evidence
Hence, an alternative location for the Pillars of Heracles could be
between Tunisia and Sicily (an alternative which would presume that
some of the
Mediterranean in this area "sank" through earthquakes and tectonic
plate activity at the time of Santorini's eruption, or that the only
entrance at the time to the East half of the Mediterranean was formed
by the Straits
GATES) Tartessus = Carthage
is near the Pillars of Heracles. Is this in Spain or elsewhere?
writes: [Atlas's] twin brother...obtained as his lot the extremity of
the island towards the Pillars of Heracles, as far as the country which
is still called the region of Gades [Hades, Gates]... in the language
of the country which is named after him, Gadeirus.
If Spain was not
intended, could this be the Sicilian Isole EGADI (= Gades) at the
"extremity" of the island of Sicily, which in fact is across from
Hence ancient Tartessus (which was written in Phoenician as
Kart-hadasht) could have been the predecessor city to Carthage on the
other side of the Strait of Sicily.
Plato reported that Tartessus was
at the Pillars of Herakles.
Mount Etna - the highest active volcano in
Europe - is on Sicily, so this is a highly volatile volcanic region. If
Thera exploded in 1628 BC, perhaps the region around Etna was also
active at this time, since the neolithic culture there ended there
sometime around 2000 BC - which could well have been 1628 BC.
Elephants and a Continent
notes that were elephants on the island...in the interior of the temple
the roof was of ivory... Obviously, this refers to Africa.
outside the pillars of Herakles was the rest of Africa (BUT excluding
Libya) Indeed, Carthage was later a city in the region of modern
Tunisia from which Hannibal and his elephants came. So pre-Carthage
Tartessus was at one of the pillars.
Plato wrote further: "The island
was larger than Libya and Asia together and was the way to the other
islands, and from these islands you might pass through the whole of the
opposite continent which surrounds the true ocean; for this sea which
is within the straits of Heracles is only a harbor, having a narrow
entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surround land may be
most truly called a continent."
Crete and Cyrenaica
one can read from the Encylopaedia Britannica under "Libya", the
ancient Greeks affiliated Libya with that part of Africa "within" the
Pillars of Herakles occupied by a tribe living in Cyrenaica, a region
later affiliated with Crete and more or less close to the later
location of Carthage. The "continent" referred to is the rest of Africa
and Europe "outside" the Pillars of Herakles since these"surround the
true ocean" - so that the land of Atlantis "surrounded" the "ocean".
How can that be the Atlantic? or would it be only the West half
of the Mediterranean outside of a line running from Tunisia to Sicily.
Gadira = Cossyra =
Pantelleria Island Magna Grande
to Pseudo-Apollodorus, as a tenth labour Herakles was ordered to fetch
the kine of Geryon from Erythia....Gadira... and set foot in Libya.
Proceeding to Tartessus he erected as tokens of his journey two pillars
[these would appear to have to be obelisks] over against each other.
Island, called Cossyra (Gadira?) by the Latins, is the tiny island in
the Straight of Sicily and home of the Magna Grande, an extinct crater,
though underwater eruptions near the island took place as recently as
1891, and "hot mineral springs and fumaroles testify to continued
volcanic activity". The island is in a "strategic situation in the
narrow passage separating the eastern and western Mediterranean".
writes prophetically: "The Mediterranean Sea is a remnant of the Thethy
Sea, which formerly girdled the Eastern Hemisphere. The continental
shelves are relatively narrow. The widest, off the Gulf of Gabes
(compare to Gades) on the eastern coast of Tunisia, extends 170 miles
.... [underwater outward from the shore]"
whole Mediterranean basin is tectonically active and earthquakes are
common..... A submarine ridge between the island of Sicily and the
African coast divides the Mediterranean Sea into eastern and western
parts". This ridge is "submerged". Maps of the Mediterranean indicate
that much of the distance between Tunisia and Sicily could once have
been land. WHEN was the ridge between Sicily and the African coast
submerged? At the explosion of Thera??? It is possible. The Encyclopaedia
Britannica writes: "The floor of the Mediterranean consists of
sediments made up of lime, clay, and sand, under which is blue mud."
the evidence of the stone megaliths on Malta, which archaeologists say
were constructed by prehistoric man - we might presume that Malta (as
also Sardinian type tombs on Pantelleria Island) was once accessible by
land, there being no evidence of seaworthy ships in neolithic times to
get the settlers to the island to build these sites. Moreover, Malta is
famous for wagon-like road ruts in solid rock which just "end" at the
one of the Maltese cliffs. Did the rest of the island just "drop" into
the ocean - around 1628 BC? The answer might be yes. This would explain
why neolithic archaeological remains on Malta show pottery "that seems
to be related to that of contemporary eastern Sicily".
writes: "This culture came to a sudden end about 2000 BC".
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