Kings | Sumer
Stars | Sumerian
Language | Sumer
Cuneiform | MUL.APIN
Sargon of Akkad | Akkadian
Language | Pots
of Proof | Where
The Sumerians are
of great importance for an understanding
of the development of modern human civilization.
The Sumerians "were
responsible for the first system of writing...
the earliest known codes of law; the development of the city-state;
the invention of the potter's wheel, the sailboat, and the seed plow;
and the creation of literary, musical, and architectural forms
that influenced all of Western civilization." Encyclopaedia
Vol. 1, p. 771, 15th Edition.
In view of these
we should take some considerable effort to make sure
we find out correctly just who these people were.
legends about the people of the Black Sea,
the "People of the Flood" were known as
who in ancient times lived on the Black
We shall suggest
that these are the same
as the Mesopotamian SUMERIANS
as well as the Pharaonic Egyptian KEMET
- the hieroglyphic name for the land of
Old Kingdom Egypt -
and that the name CIMMERI is
on the basis of Latvian ZIEMELI
Greek father of history, reports the legend
that the Cimmerians were driven out of
the Black Sea region
over the Caucasus into Mesopotamia by
Hence, we also
have written "historical" reason
to seek the Cimmerians of the Black Sea
in the Sumerians of
This people will not have changed their
name that quickly.
of the CIMMERIANS is in ERROR
Much of this
ancient legend as reported by Herodotus
has elements of truth when examined in large time frames.
But the current chronological dating is wrong.
"The origin of the
Cimmerians is obscure. Linguistically they are
usually regarded as Thracian or as Iranian,
or at least to have had an Iranian ruling class.
They probably did live in the area north of the Black Sea,
but attempts to define their original homeland
more precisely by archaeological means, or even to fix
the date of their expulsion from their country by the Scythians,
have not so far been completely successful."
Vol. 3, p. 321, 15th Edition.
A few more modern
archaeologists divide the Cimmerians up
(correctly - in my opinion) into a Western (Thracian-Sumerian)
and an Eastern (Kizil-Koba Colchis) group. Using this division,
these archaeologists already begin to get "more accurate"
dates going back to ca. 2000 B.C. rather than
the 700 B.C. which the backward mainstream historians
- simply guessing -
have employed to date the Cimmerians.
OF ANCIENT SUMER IS "GUESSWORK"
"The chronology of
the first half of the 3rd millennium
is largely a matter of guesswork.....
From 1594 BC
several chronologically overlapping dynasties
reach back to the beginning of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, ca. 2112 BC."
"It is still uncertain how much time separated the middle
of the 15th century BC from the end of the 1st dynasty of Babylon,
which is therefore variously dated to 1594 BC ("middle"),
1530 BC ("short") or 1730 BC ("long") chronology."
Vol. 21, p. 912,
Dating is largely
based on Lists of Kings.
See the Sumerian List of Kings for a new discovery.
"The excavation of
a royal palace at Mari (Sumer),
an ancient city on the Euphrates...
brought to light thousands of cuneiform tablets...
which specialists utilized to show that,
in the Biblical book of Genesis,
narratives fit perfectly with what, from other sources,
is known today of the early 2nd millennium BC,
but imperfectly with a later period."
Encyclopaedia Britannica "Abraham",
Micropaedia, Vol. 1, p. 36, 15th
A proto-Indo-European Language
mixed with Mediterranean Elements?
One of the problems
which exists in identifying the Sumerians
with absolute certainty is that scholars allege
that Sumerian is unrelated to any known language.
line of connection for ancient languages is
Baltic Sea - Black Sea - Mesopotamia - Egypt.
compare Sumerian to Indo-European
on the basis of the very archaic Latvian,
we want to
look at ancient hydronymy,
the names of rivers and bodies of water,
which hold on to their names with great tenacity.
parallels between the Baltic languages
and the ancient Balkan languages, and there
hydronymic names around the Black Sea
which appear to have a Baltic connection. Breidaks writes:
of Baltic terms for bodies of water (especially rivers)
stem from the most ancient stratum of Indo-European hydronymy.
These terms occupy an important position for resolution
of questions regarding the pre-history of Indo-European peoples,
including their mutual relations, their place of origin,
their ancient migrations, etc."
"In the last several decades, it has been frequently noted
in linguistic writings that Baltic toponymy in many respects
embraces the ambit of Central Europe...particularly...
to the relation between Baltic and Illyrian
(as well as to the Eastern neighbors of the latter,
the Thracians and Dacians)...the archaeologist T. Sulimirski
and the linguists I. Duridanov and W. Porzig
are of the opinion that the Baltic, Thracian and Dacian peoples
were long neighbors to each other in the pre-Christian era."
"Concerning the Parallels Between Baltic and Ancient Languages",
published as "Par Baltu un Seno Balkanu Valodu Paralelem"
Zinatnu Akademijas Vestis, 1977, No. 3 (356), 88-98,
and republished in the approved translation by Andis Kaulins
The Relation of the Baltic
Languages to Illyrian
1980, Volume III of the monograph series,
Origins: Studies in the History of
Mankind and its Languages.
See also T.
Sulimirski, "Ancient Southern Neighbours of the Baltic Tribes",
Acta Baltico-Slavica, V. Bialystok,
1967, pp. 6-17, LB XII (2) 100, 108.
For a complete
list of 500 lexical equivalences from A to Z
between Sumerian and Indo-European on the basis of Latvian
including some special linguistic notes, go to
Sumerian and Indo-European A-K Sumerian
and Indo-European L-Z
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