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Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing


My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)






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SANSKRIT LANGUAGE ORIGINS
SANSKRIT WORDS and BALTIC
Sanskrit words compared to Baltic
on the Example of Latvian

From the Wikipedia, Sanskrit:

"European scholarship in Sanskrit, begun by Heinrich Roth (1620–1668) and Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681–1731),[25] is regarded as responsible for the discovery of the Indo-European language family by Sir William Jones. This scholarship played an important role in the development of Western philology, or historical linguistics....

Sir William Jones,
speaking to the Asiatic Society
in Calcutta (now Kolkata)
on February 2, 1786, said:

    "The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.
"


(see the table of comparisons further below, but read the following text if you have questions, please)


LEXICAL COMPARISON OF
SANSKRIT AND LATVIAN


Why the comparison of Sanskrit and Baltic?
Sanskrit language is a sometimes said to be dead language
(but not according to this court decision of the Madras High Court) attested only in written works
several thousands of years old.

It has been "reconstructed" by the linguists (see Sanskrit grammar).

Not everything they have concluded from ancient texts is correct, whereas Latvian is still a living language.

The Sanskrit words in the list below
are thought by the scholars to be the simple forms,

but since Sanskrit like Latvian is an inflected
post-agglutinative language,
the linguists have surely erred here and there,

as they also do in deciphering agglutinative
allegedly pre-inflection languages
such as Sumerian.

In Sumerian, for example,
they presume that words have U-endings as nominatives,

whereas words in Sumerian temple verses, etc.
show that dative construction is often used (so my findings)
rather than nominatives
which means that
the dative form is the subject
while in the object is nominative.

Linguists have assumed the subject is nominative.

Such U-ending dative forms -- as subjects --
have been mistaken as nominatives,
making for a clumsy, inaccurate Sumerian grammar.


Here is a Latvian example of dative construction:
TĒVAM IR MĀJA =
FATHER (dative) HAS a HOUSE (nominative),
literally "FATHER'S IS (the) HOUSE"

Try this one in Latvian:
T
ĒVU MĀJU DEVU =
"I" (the "I" is assumed) FATHER's HOUSE GAVE

The current modern roots for those words
are T
ĒVS (nominative) and MĀJA (nominative).

There is no nominative form in the whole phrase.
For sentences like that in Sumerian,
scholars would give those words U-stems, erroneously.

Note that Latvian
like ancient Pharaonic Egyptian or Sumerian
has no definite or indefinite articles.

That is the "UR-ZUSTAND" of proto-Indo-European,
showing again how archaic the Baltic languages are.


My father came from Livonia, land of the Livs,
called VIDZEME, "middle earth", in Latvian,
which is where the purest,
central dialect of Latvian is spoken
viz. was spoken before the modern era.

Latvian became somewhat Russified during the period of occupation after WWII, especially in the big cities, but there are also plenty of loan words from English as well.

In rural Livonia, the truest Latvian form of 
"I am" is still ES ESU, (esu "am" is thus an extension of being, of es "the self")
whereas much of Latvia modernly says "ES ESMU",
surely a later variant.

Some familieis in Livonia still use very archaic vowel stems in many words where modern Latvian has lost them.
An example would be the modern Latvian word agrs "early" whereas in Livonia one might say agris, retaining the more archaic i-stem.

Livonia borders on Estonia and the Estonian language is viewed to be agglutinative, like Finnish.

In fact, there are many similarities between Latvian and Estonian, many of them camouflaged by differing orthography and incompletely researched linguistics.

There is a widespread theory, for example,
that the Saami take their name
from the Baltic word zeme meaning "earth",
borrowed and re-borrowed
according to the amusing fantasy of the linguists.

The Saami to the North of Latvia
is a land of thousands of lakes and islands
and hardly would have been called "land" or "earth".

In fact, the most cogent theory is my theory
that the term Saami (Latvian SOMI "Finns")
relates to
the Latvian terms ziema "Winter"
and ziemeļi "North".

The simplest explanation is often the right one.
We still divide America into Northerners and Southerners.

Originally in Latvian, as Franz Bopp,
the founder of comparative linguistics argued,
demonstrative pronouns were agglutinated to word roots
and this gave rise to inflection in the course of time.

In modern Latvian,
the intervening vowel in the agglutinated pronouns is often lost.
Here is how the demonstrative pronouns were added:

Latvian MAN-TAS "mine that"
became MANTAS "property,
i.e. belonging to me"

MAN-TO-JUMS "mine that to you" or MAN-DO-JUMS "me give you" became MANTOJUMS "testated property"

MAN-DO-ŠANA "me-give-that" became
MANTOŠANA "the process of inheritance"

Modern linguists do not recognize this.
They live in an aritificial world
of purported grammatic rules of their own construction.

PIE-ROKAS-TAS "by - the hand - that"
became PIRKSTAS "finger"
and that became PIRKSTS viz. PIRKSTIS "finger"  etc.


We are thus not much interested in grammatical forms.
Rather, we equate WORDS, regardless of their grammatical form.

The grammatical forms are mutable
and almost totally irrelevant to these word equations.


To take one example out of the lexical equations below,
let us take Sanskrit asru,
which I equate with the Latavian word asaru.


Grammatically, Latvian asara is singular and asaras is plural for "tears of the eye",
but if we look at the word IN ACTUAL USE

Tik daudz asaru! = So many tears!, is
a recent posting headline in Latvian.

__________

When I first put up this page many years ago
it was still difficult to get proper diacritic letters for the Latvian language for online use, but that is now possible. Hence, although I dislike diacritical marks in the modern computer age as sheer time-wasters, I add them here, whereas I left them out of the original page as posted.

I am a NATIVE Latvian speaker so do not presume that I do not know the correct forms. I do. However, I do not always use the nominative form of the nouns or the infinitive form of verbs and in past versions of this page I used "uo" for the Latvian "o", a German orthography of Latvian in early days of contact, since "uo" more closely approximates the actual sound in Latvian "o", which is not like the "o" in English.

I also use word forms found in the Latvian Dainas or other literature that may not conform exactly to moden spoken Latvian, which in Riga now has many foreign elements and influences
both -- Russian and English -- for example.

Over the years I have received all kinds of emails suggesting word "corrections", and I promised some of the well-meaning posters to change the orthography and/or add explanations of terms, which I now finally do, in 2012.

If I find the word used online as I use it,
I add a link,
so there should be no misunderstandings.

Recall:
The Sanskrit language is a dead language attested only in written works
several thousands of years old. Latvian still exists.

Sanskrit
Word

 Latvian
Word (links in blue)

Meaning

(identical in both languages)

abhi

abi

"both"

agra

agra, agri

"early"

asmi

esmu

"am"

asnas

asins, asinis
(some Latvian areas still retain the archaic "i"-stem)

"blood"

asru

asaru
nom. sing. asara, plural is asaras

"tear(s) of the eye"

 asti

ēsti

"to eat"

avata

avota
nom. avots

"spring water, source"

bhalto

balto
nom. balts

"light, bright, white"

bhanga

banga

"billow, wave"

bharata

barota

"feed, fed, take care of"

bhedati

bēdāti
bēdāties

"worry, grieve"

bhuti

būti

"be, exist"

bhy s

bijās

"feared, was afraid"

cathurth

ceturtā

"fourth"



Sanskrit
Word
Latvian
Word (links in blue)

Meaning

(identical in both languages)

dala

daļa

"part, division"

dina

diena

"day"

d hati

degot(i)

"burn(ing) (fire)"

Dyaus

Dievs

"Deus, God"

devah

devēj(s)

"giver"

dhuma

dūma (usually dūmu)
d
ūmi

"of smoke"


"smoke"

drgha

dārga
dārgs

"expensive"

dhurti

durti
(seen as Lithuanian but used
as e.g. caurdurti
"puncture"
in Latvian)
Latv. durt

"injure, stab"
literally "the act of stabbing" or "poking through"

dusim

dosim
mēs dosim

"give, will give"
"we shall give"

dhruva

druva

"field of grain"
"cornfield"

duris

duris
modernly durvis

"door"

 *d

ēd

"eat"



Sanskrit
Word

Latvian
Word (links in blue)

Meaning
(identical in both languages)

ga*s

govs

"cow, cattle"

gospada

govs pēda

"cow track"

griva

grīva

"mouth, estuary, firth"

ganisan

ganīšana

"shepherding,  pasturage"

grabh

grāb

"grab"

jiv

dzīv(s)

"alive"

j*vati

dzīvot(i)

"live"

yukt

jūgti
jūgs

"harness"

"yoke"



Sanskrit
Word 

 Latvian
Word

Meaning
(identical for both languages)

krmi

ķirmis

"wood-eater, borer, worm"

katha

kā tā

"how that"

kada

kad

"when"

kas

kas

"what"

kataras

katris

"each"

kliba

kliba

"unable, lame"

kuti

kūti
nom. kūts

"shed, coop, stable, barn"



Sanskrit
Word

 Latvian
Word

Meaning
(identical for both languages)

mat*h

māte

"mother"

manita

manīta


"known, observed, noticed, spotted"

madhu

medus
medu is a grammatical form

"honey" (root of term for "mead")

mith

mīt

"change"

mukti

mukt(i)

"run off, run away, scoot off"

n*kt

nakt(s)

"night"

nabhi

naba
nabiņa dim.

"navel"

okas

ēkas

"buildings"



Sanskrit
Word

 Latvian
Word

Meaning
(identical for both languages)

pl*si

bluši
modernly
blusas

"fleas"

palava

pelava

"chaff"

p*tis

patis
modernly
pats

"self"

pratikama

patīkama

"pleasant, agreeable, nice"

pretvira

Rainis: "Tu lauzi mūs, naidīgā pretvara"

"opponents, contra power"

prasnaya

prašņaja

"question"

pluti

plūdi

"flood(s), floodwaters"

r*tha

rats
rati
rata

"wheel, wheels, of wheels"

rasa

rasa

"dew"

rud

raud
raud
āt

"cries"
"cry"



Sanskrit
Word

 Latvian
Word

Meaning
(identical for both languages)

sad

sēd
sēdēt "to sit"

"sits"

spurdh*se

spārdijās
spārdīšana

"kicked, fought"
"kicking, fighting"

sana

sen
sena

"long ago"
"old"

sunas

sunis
modernly
suns

"dog"
for sunis Google "mans sunis"

sth

stāvēt
stāv

"stand"
"stands"

slaviti

slavēti

"praise, glorify"

svanta

svinēt

"celebrate"

sirsnas

"no sirsnas"
sirsniņa dim.
nom. sirds
sirsnība

"from the heart"
"heart" dim.
"heart"
"heartiness"

saditi

stādīti

"plant"

skabh

skāb(s)

"unhappy, sour"

srava

strava

"stream, current"

sabara

sabāra
sabārt

"scold(ed)
scold"

svarah

svara
nom. svars

"of weight"
"weight, force"



Sanskrit
Word

 Latvian
Word

Meaning
(identical for both languages)

talau jihva

tālu dzīvo

"far live"

tava

tava

"yours"

tatha

"there"

 ti

ēdi

"eat"

trayas

trīs

"three"

trasati

trīcēt(i)

"tremble"

ud*

ūdens

 "water"

udhar

ūdris

 "otter"



Sanskrit
Word

 Latvian
Word

Meaning
(identical for both languages)

vayus

vējis
modernly
vējš

 "wind"

vrkas

 vilks

"wolf"

vira

vīrs
gen. vīra

"man, husband"

vrdhi

vārdi

"words"

visur

visur

"everywhere"

varuni

 varoņi

"winners, heroes"

vacala

 vācele

 "gossip"

virsus

virsus
modernly
virs

"above, over, top"


"over, on top of"

vayu

vāju
nom.
vājš

 "weak"

Dev datta

Dieva dota

 "God given"






 

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