Who were The Hyksos?
Kassites? Aramaeans? Amorites? Hapiru?
The Hyksos were surely the Biblical Midianites,
Palestinians. According to the Bible,
Moses took the
daughter of their King as a wife.
Midianite kings of the five cities were
- according to
the Bible - destroyed by Moses
allegiance with the Moabites.
These are the kings Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba and these are
the Hyksos kings Scheschi, Apopi II, Apopi I, Chian and Jakobher
on the Egyptian hieroglyphs as the Hyksos Kings.
The Pharaoh Anather
is the same as Biblical Gideon.
HYKSOS = KASSITES
KASDIM = MIDIANITES
The identity of
is disputed, but there is little doubt that the Hy-KSOS were the
KASSites (=Hebrew KASDIM) or KASKA, enemies of the Hittites.
(ca. 300 BC)
used the term Hyksos
to describe what Josephus later (1st century AD) translated as
i.e. nomads, the Midianites.
transcribe the applicable hieroglyph as
HIKAU - CHOSWET
Kassites are mentioned first historically in Elamite texts late in the
3rd millennium BC.
The name of these
peoples is perhaps retained in the later Russian and Turkish term KAZAK
adventurers, raiders, nomadic shepherds".
Hyksos bring horses into the fertile crescent. Kassites regarded
horse to be their sacred animal - so this is a great indicator that
Hy-ksos = Kassites.
reach Mesopotamia by the 2nd millennium, founding the 2nd Babylonian
at about the same time
as the Hyksos are expelled from Egypt.
ARAMAEANS = AMORITES
KAL.DU = KAS.DU =
The Midianite as
the Hyksos may also be related the people transcribed in literature as
who are the ARAM.W (Aramaeans),
which is a term also transcribable as m'3.w, i.e. as MA-AR.WI
(Amorites). Hence, the ARAMAEANS of the scholars are probably also
AMORITES of the Bible - known in Sumerian
and Akkadian texts as MAR.TU or AMURRU,
who are the people of MARI.
equation of Aramaean with Amorite is supported by Albright's thesis
that Aramaic finds original traces in Mari texts, i.e., Amorite texts.
The description of the Amorites
(Aramaeans) fits those of the Kassites. Amorite later becomes Aramaic,
the lingua franca of the fertile crescent,
and ARAMAIC becomes ARABIC (through M>B shift. The
Aramaeans are today called Syrians and are related to the Palestinians.
The Aramaeans were
collectively as the KAL.DU or Chaldeans, and - here is the connection
to the Kassites and Hyksos - KAL.DU is also written as KAS.DU in
Babylonian and as KASDIM in Hebrew. In Assyro-Babylonian texts KAS4
means "to vagabond, run freely about" so this again means "shepherds".
The British Museum
Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
has a good discussion of the Hyksos as Palestinians.
The Hyksos were
The Dark Age of
The HYKSOS were a tribe (or tribes)
of nomadic and warlike shepherd peoples (the Kassites, Kaska, Amorites,
Aramaeans, Midianites, Syrians, Palestinians) who
spread across Palestine due to the chaos caused by earthquakes and the
explosion of Santorin. They took advantage of the so weakened peoples
and governments in the region, and even extended their influence into
Egypt, until their expulsion, circa 1575 B.C. which coincides with
their taking of Babylon at about the same time.
The Hapiru were
period of Kassite (Amorite) rule is a dark age in the fertile crescent,
during which the Amorite language became dominant in Syria and
Palestine - and is retained down to this day as Arabic. These Amorites
are surely the Habiru or Hapiru of history (the "correct" transcription
is ha-ru-bi or ha-ru-pi i.e. "the shepherd people" or ARABs). Indeed,
as noted in the Lion Handbook to the Bible "during most of the 1st
millennium BC (by current chronology), the Arabians appear mainly as
in regard to Exodus
and Joshua (Ahmose),
who expelled the Hyksos
which is the Nile Delta.
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