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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

Hyksos and LexiLine? Logo Midianites
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning


Who were The Hyksos?

Kassites? Aramaeans? Amorites? Hapiru?

The Hyksos were surely the Biblical
i.e. Palestinians. According to the Bible,
Moses took the daughter of their King as a wife.

The five Midianite kings of the five cities were
- according to the Bible - destroyed by Moses
for their allegiance with the Moabites.

These are the kings Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba and these are the Hyksos kings Scheschi, Apopi II, Apopi I, Chian and Jakobher on the Egyptian hieroglyphs as the Hyksos Kings.

The Pharaoh
is the same as Biblical Gideon.





The identity of the Hyksos
is disputed, but there is little doubt that the Hy-KSOS were the Midianites, i.e.
KASSites (=Hebrew KASDIM) or KASKA, enemies of the

(ca. 300 BC)
used the term Hyksos
to describe what Josephus later (1st century AD) translated as "king-shepherds",
i.e. nomads, the Midianites.

The Egyptologists transcribe the applicable hieroglyph as
Kassites are mentioned first historically in Elamite texts late in the 3rd millennium BC.

The name of these peoples is perhaps retained in the later Russian and Turkish term KAZAK = "COSSACKs,
adventurers, raiders, nomadic shepherds".

The Hyksos bring horses into the fertile crescent.  Kassites regarded the horse to be their sacred animal - so this is a great indicator that
Hy-ksos = Kassites.

 They  reach Mesopotamia by the 2nd millennium, founding the 2nd Babylonian dynasty
at about the same time
as the Hyksos are expelled from Egypt.




The Midianite as the Hyksos may also be related the people transcribed in literature as '3m.w [Rm.w]
who are the ARAM.W (Aramaeans),
which is a term  also transcribable as m'3.w, i.e. as MA-AR.WI (Amorites). Hence, the ARAMAEANS of the scholars are probably also the  AMORITES of the Bible - known in Sumerian
and Akkadian texts as MAR.TU or AMURRU,
who are the people of MARI.

The equation of Aramaean with Amorite is supported by Albright's thesis that Aramaic finds original traces in Mari texts, i.e., Amorite texts. The description of the Amorites
(Aramaeans) fits those of the Kassites. Amorite later becomes Aramaic, the lingua franca of the fertile crescent,
and ARAMAIC becomes ARABIC (through M>B shift. The Aramaeans are today called Syrians and are related to the Palestinians.

The Aramaeans were known
collectively as the KAL.DU or Chaldeans, and - here is the connection to the Kassites and Hyksos - KAL.DU is also written as KAS.DU in Babylonian and as KASDIM in Hebrew. In Assyro-Babylonian texts KAS4 means "to vagabond, run freely about" so this again means "shepherds". The
British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt has a good discussion of the Hyksos as Palestinians.

The Hyksos were marauding shepherds

The Dark Age of the HAPIRU

The HYKSOS were a tribe (or tribes)
of nomadic and warlike shepherd peoples (the Kassites, Kaska, Amorites, Aramaeans, Midianites, Syrians, Palestinians) who
spread across Palestine due to the chaos caused by earthquakes and the explosion of Santorin. They took advantage of the so weakened peoples and governments in the region, and even extended their influence into Egypt, until their expulsion, circa 1575 B.C. which coincides with their taking of Babylon at about the same time.

The Hapiru were Arabs
he period of Kassite (Amorite) rule is a dark age in the fertile crescent, during which the Amorite language became dominant in Syria and Palestine - and is retained down to this day as Arabic. These Amorites are surely the Habiru or Hapiru of history (the "correct" transcription is ha-ru-bi or ha-ru-pi i.e. "the shepherd people" or ARABs). Indeed, as noted in the Lion Handbook to the Bible "during most of the 1st millennium BC (by current chronology), the Arabians appear mainly as raiders".

in regard to Exodus

and Joshua (Ahmose),
who expelled the Hyksos
which is the Nile Delta.


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