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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Sumerian LexiLine? Logo Terms A - K
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A - K
Lexical Equivalence on the basis of Latvian

- Lexical Equivalence from A to K -
On the evidence of LATVIAN

Word sources are: John A. Halloran's Lexicon of Sumerian Logograms
at the web domain
and the Latvian-German historical dictionary of Latvian by Muehlenbachs-Endzelins.

The first table below is a systematic list
showing e.g. that Sumerian variants of the same root are due to thus far unrecognized differences in  vowels and consonants



DUN 4 warp, lay a warp (in weaving)
DUN 5, DU 9 to butter
DUN 5, DU 9 complain, sway, stagger
DUN, DU 24 to scrape, dig (a field,
  furrow, hole), to heap, pile up, to open

DUNAS (long u) warp in weaving, feather bed
DUONA/DUONIS (uo) butter churn or tub
DUNA, DUNet (short u) drone, sway, stagger
DUNA (palatal n) mass of mud, moist earth
DUNCIS digging part of the plow

DAB 2,4,5 hold, take, seize
DIB 2 hold, take, seize
DIB 2 pass along, send over, wander
DUB kick, flop (said of fish,newborn animals)
DUB knock down

DABUO, TAP, TAPT take, hold, seize, become
DIB-ina establish, found (seize in this sense)
TIP-ina toddles, wanders
TAP, TUOP become, emerge, develop

TAP, TUOP trample

SHITA cleanliness

SHITA mace

SHITA 5 a type of vessel
SHITA 4 bind, band, bound

CITiba-  (long i) pronounced TSEET cleanliness
SIT- (short i) to hit CIET- (TSIET-) hard object
SIETA, SIETs (vowel ie) of a sieve, sieve
SIETA, CIETA tied, bound, band, firm

KUSH skin, hide
KUSH to tire
KUSHU turtle (see KISI, KASH)
KUSHU of sheep, cattle

KAZHU of skin, hide
KUS- (long u) to tire
KAUSU bowl-shaped(back of the turtle)
KAZU of goats

KUR mountain, highland
KUR kindle
KUR reed container, KUR 6 food basket
KUR reach, attain
KUR 5 cut, notch etc.
KUR 4 fat, get big

KUR-ms mound, heap, elevation
KUR- to burn, heat, stoke
KURvis basket
KER- grab reach, attain
CER cut, CIRvis axe
KARe (long a) craving, gluttony

GIBIL 4 renewal, renovate
GIBIL to burn, burning

KUPLI adorn (short u) KUOP- take care of
KUPULI, KUP- (long u) steam, smoke, cure

ULUSHIN emmer beer
ULUTIN attractive, attention-getting

(ie)LUTIN- spoil(ed), pamper(ed), well-liked

Notes to the subsequent list of lexical correspondences:

1. One reason that Sumerian  has been difficult to relate to
any known language is that  
transcription is still quite faulty.
Otherwise the correspondences here would be even greater.

2. These difficulties are apparent in variant Sumerian
logograms which the Oriental scholars have given the same
transcription and which are distinguished only by number
e.g. SA 1, SA 2, SA 3, etc.
Recourse to Latvian shows that each of these logograms
are DIFFERENT words or syllables,
varying by end consonant and /or length of vowels
e.g. Sumerian SA4 is Latvian SAUC
but Sumerian SA5 is Latvian SARts
and Sumerian SA 6 is Latvian SALds

3. The assessment that Sumerian H (diacritical mark below the letter)
is equivalent to guttural CH as in German ICH
appears to be incorrect. Rather, it seems to correspond
to the fricatives (unvoiced and voiced) TS / DZ
or to the palatalized consonants G = DJ or K = TJ in Latvian.

4. There is evidence that Sumerian SH (S + diacritical above)
also included CH- as a sound. See CHAP-, CHUP-, SHUP-.


A. The Time Factor. Sumerian and modern Latvian are separated by 5000 years at least, so that perfect matches should not be expected in all cases.
No single word is decisive, but the sum is enough to show the relation.

B. Purely hypothetical proto-Indo-European “reconstructed” roots
have not been used here for comparison because these are
in my opinion inaccurate and will be amended considerably
by the linguists once one sees that there is a confluence
of many Sumerian and proto-Indo-European terms.

C. The linguists have also FAILED
to take old grammatical elements as preserved in Latvian
(and to some degree in Lithuanian) into account:
These grammatical and linguistic elements are:

1. The prefix PA- / BA- (= extension or localization of space),
also the prefix AP- or AB- (see Muehlenbachs-Endzelins) is both a separate
word as well as an agglutinated element. Linguists have ignored it, erroneously.

2. The suffix -BA / -PA (= extension/localization of space)
and its
variants -VA -MA (see Muehlenbachs-Endzelins)
have - erroneously - not been recognized.

3. The reflexive particle SA- of the self  ESa, s-mobile, has
not been recognized (see Muehlenbachs-Endzelins)

4. The Latvian directional prefixes IE, AIZ-, IZ- and UZ-
meaning on, behind, after, in, above, out of, etc. and deriving
from the word for the self ES or ASH, have not been recognized. 
AIZ and UZ can also be separate terms or agglutinated to words.

5. The agglutination of demonstrative and personal pronouns
e.g. -TA, TU-, -TIE-, -TAS , KAS (variant -DA, -DU, -DI etc.)
and also -SHI, -SHA, -SHUO, - SHIM
has not been recognized (see Bopp).

6. As shown by Sivan in Northwest Semitic texts,
forms such as NA-SHIM from the above Latvian -SHIM
are later nasalized forms, which did not exist in proto-Indo-European.

 7. in Latvian, the direct object is often the subject - also in Sumerian,
e.g. manu maju duodu (I give my house, but literally my house give I),
whence, end u-forms in Sumerian are NEVER nominative.

Nearly 200 years ago, Franz Bopp - the founder of comparative linguistics - alleged the origin of inflection in the agglutination of demonstrative pronouns,
but, alas, no one paid any attention to him.
Many of the elements above are AGGLUTINATIVE in nature in Latvian
(as also in Sumerian).



The Sumerian term on the left is......

identical to the Latvian term on the right.

AB domestic cow
AB lake, sea
ABSIN 3 seeded furrow (ab + si + in)
ACHI, ACH 5 arm, wing, horn, side,
  strength, wages
AKA, AG, A5 do, make, act, place
ADA, AD father
ADDA 2, AD 3,6 carcass, corpse
AGA, AG, AKA, AM measure, check
AGARIN 2,3 father, mother
AGARIN 4,5 beer-wort, crucible, vat
AM, EM who, which, what, as, like
AMA 4,5 living quarters, room
AMA mother UME older woman
AMBAR marsh, reeds
AN, EN lord, priest, sky, heaven,
  Gilgamesh, astronomical deities
APIN plow
ASA, AZ cage, fetter, bear, myrtle
ASAL, ASAR Euphrates poplar
ASH one, unique
ASHAG field

(L)UOP- domestic cow, beast of burden
UPE river, stream
ABSEJINA (ab-sej-ina) that sowed
AIC-, AICINA wave with the arm,
  hence, invite, summon
LIK/LIEK do put place AUG- plant
TEvs, TETis, father TAUTA folk
ADA skin, hide
ACUO to eye, check by looking
AGRINIE, AGRAKIE earlier, previous
AGRIN- early, early-ripe
AKNA liver, udder (tesmenis)
KAM which, whom
IEMAJA, MAJA home, house
MA-TE mother, O-MA grandmother
APARs marsh, reeds
JANis, JUMts (Egyptian ON)
  deity, center of heaven, Midsummer
APIJA, APINIS tied center of the plow
VAZHA fetter  AIZA ravine, enclosure
UOZOL oak (see also Latvian ZAR)
ES, Lithuanian ASH the Self, "I"
- enclosure, fenced-off area



BA give, divide, apportion, etc.
BI, BE this one, that one, it, its,
the, to
all in the sense of by, extension of
space !!

BAD, BE to open, to let out, to go away
to be at a distance
BAD 4 hardship, difficulty, inarable land
BALA, BAL spindle, revolve, crossover
  turn around, go back
BAR open, uncover, see, remove,
select, divide, distribute, foreign,
because of, outside
BAR, PAR, BARA, PARA pass over
 stretch out, spread out, above
BAR 6,7 shine, bright, white, rising sun
BARA 5,6 king
BARA 4 open wide, released, separated
BARAG throne, platform, perch
BILLUDA, BILUDA worship, cult
BIR scatter, mix, shed tears, fall, pour
BIR team of, collection (i.e. an amount)
BIZ slap, strike, accuse, tears

BUNIG, BUNIN reed container
BUR meal, repast
BUR knap, flake off, tear out, despoil
BUR, BURU hole, mine, bore
BUR, BURU open, release
BURANUN Euphrates

BA, BI, PA, PIE extension of space !!
prefix (PA) and suffix (BA), with verbs
and nouns  - there are
no definite or
indefinite articles in Sumerian, Latvian
or Old Kingdom Pharaonic Egyptian
VAD-, VED, VERT lead, escort away,
open VALA open
BAD- hunger dearth
APALA, PAR- round, circular in shape,
 over, turn around
because, left over, divide, open, observe,
foreign, outside, because of, distribute 
PAR, PARI over, above, pass above,
  extension of space above <*BA-RI
BAL- white
PAR-, VARA over, power, might
PARRAU spread, rip apart PAR-RAU-
PEREKlis perch
PIELUDZA worshipped, prayed
BIR fall, pour, shed tears
BIRka tally, tag, amount
BAIDS, BID-, BIED- frighten, shove
BIRST (tears) fall VAIDs wail
  drum,  container
BAR- (BARiba, BARot)meal, eat
BURza, BERze grate, flake, rub
BUR, BURU bore
VER, VERU open, opened, release
PURAINE/PURENE marsh, marshy



CHA, CHU ten
CHA-A numerous, diverse, mixed
  CHE 2 abundance, abundant
CHAB 2 stink, foul smell, resin
CHALBA, CHALBI frost, freezing
CHASH  area of the lower abdomen
CHENBUR 2 green shoot, stalk
CHU bird

KAUdze many, heap DES-mit ten
D(Z)AUDZ, KAUdze  many,varied
  D(Z)AUDZ , KAUdze many, varied
KEPA (palatal k, long e) foul mess
SAL-, SALIBA frost
CIS-KA thigh, haunch
CHEMUR, KEMBUR bunch, cluster
KAIJU gull



DAB 2,4,5 DIB hold, take, seize
  DIB 2 hold, take, seize
DAL to remove, to be far away
DALCHAMUN storm, disorder
DALLA, DALA needle
DALLA bright, conspicuous, excellent
DANNA twelfth part of a full day
DAR slice, split, shatter (see TAR)
DI decide, judge, lawsuit, sentence
DIB 2 pass along, wander, cross
DIDILA, DIDI young, small
DINGIR god, deity
  DUNGU cloud, cloudbank
DU, DU 7 build, make, mould, cast,
  fasten, work, finish, complete
DU 12 sing, music act, acquire wife
DUB clay tablet
DUB pour, to heap up
DUG 4, DU 11 speak, command
DUG 4, DU 11 have sex
DUG, DU 10 sweet, good, beautiful
DUMU, TUM 9, TU 15 re: wind
DUMU child, son, daughter
DUN 4 warp, to lay a warp in weaving
DUN 5, DU 9 to butter
DUN 5, DU 9 sway, stagger
DUN, DU 24 scrape, dig (e.g. a field,
  furrow, hole), heap, pile up, open
DUR bond, string, thread, strap, tie,
  amulet chain, necklace, umbilical cord
  URI 2,5 URIM 2,5 door(post)
  (this is a problem of transcription)
DURUN, DURU, DUR sit, buttocks,
  occupy, dwell

DABut, TAPT get, grab, evolve
  DIBinat establish, found, declare
TAL- far
TRAKUMIN chaos, disorder
ADATA needle (IE)DALA part, divide
DAL- slice, split, divide DAR do
DAILA pretty, elegant, beautiful
TIEsa court DUO give out, decide
TIPinat toddle, wander (S)TIEP extend
DIDILI (Lithuanian) small ones
DANGUS heaven Lith., DENDER
  round of heaven, Egypt DENDERA
DUO hand (to), DA-RA do, finish,
  make, work, fasten, mould, build
DZIED sing, sing praise, serenade
DUBli mud, clay
DUBt hollow out, pour, heap up
TEIC-, TEIK- say, express, command
TIEK-, TIKas, to meet (together)
TAUK- rich, fat German TUGend
DUMA, DUMI, DUMU smoke, haze
DZIMU birth
DUNAS (short u) warp in weaving
DUONA/DUONIS butter container
DUNA, DUNet drone, sway, stagger
DUNA mass of mud, moist earth
  DUNCIS digging part of the plow
DUR-, CAUR- thrust through, through,
  thread through
  DURI door
  DURIM to the door, of a door
DIBEN- DVIVOJU bottom, buttocks,
  sit, occupy, dwell



ED, DU,E, E 11 go out, forth, exit
  rise, descend (astronomical texts)
  IG door, entrance
EDAKUA 12 fish bones
EN 2 time, until, background (time
measured by gnomon sun shadows)
ERIN, EREN cedar (not! cedar since
Sumerian LI = juniper/cedar tree
in myths = Latvian LIE-pa linden)
ESHA, ESHE 4 flour
ESHA be satiated, full
ESHU barley ear, other grain
EZINU grain, cereal

go along,  rise/descend (astronomy)
  EJA, IE-EJA door, entrance, in-goer
ASAKA fish bone
ENA shade AINU scene
  LENA slow time
CERINI lilac



There is no F in Sumerian or Latvian



GABA chest, breast
GAL, GAR top, end, height, extension
  GALAM ascend, climb, tall, high
  UGU skull, top of the head, top side,
  upper part, upon, over, on top
GAL, GA cause to be, place, put, dwell
GAL + GAL advice, counsel
GAL 4 vulva, genitalia
GAR 4 early
GARADIN shock, harvest sheaves
GARZA custom, rite
GASHU intelligent
GAZ 2 to crush, vanquish, defeat
GI 6, GE 6 night
GIBIL 4 renewal, renovate
GIBIL to burn, burning (GU 7+BIL)
GIR 4 kiln
GIRI, GIR knife, thorn, stab, lightning,
  road, expedition, trip
GISH, GESH tree, wood, tool, organ
GU 4D, GUD ox, bull
GU neck, river bank, front, chickpea
GUB left hand TAB hold, clasp
GUB to stand, to erect, install, to write
GUB to purify, cleanse
GUDA priest
GUDI-BIR war GUD 2 GU 2,4 warrior
GUG cake, pressed-date bread
GUG 5 hostility, war see also KAUT-
(TU-)GUL hip, thigh 
GUNNI kiln, stove
GUR basket, measure-capacity, return,
  protest, contradict, wipe off
GUR sphere, circle, ring, loop, hoop,
  to bow down, submit, to die
GUR 4, KUR 4, GIR 8 feel big, thick,
fat, bright, strong, run, gallop, turn, roll.
GURU 7 grain GUR 7 grain heap
  KURUSHDA sweet fodder
GUR 10, 14 UR 4 sickle, reap,
  harvest, to shear, gather, catch
GURUD 2 to throw
GURUM heap, pile
GURUS 3,4 GURU 5, GUR 5 trim,
  strip, cut, clip, KUR, KUR 5 cut
GUZ gnash teeth, bare teeth, cut, clip
  GU 7, KU eat, feed

GUBA bodily fullness
GAL, GAR top, end, height, extension
  GALAM, GARAM long, tall, high
  AUGU- high, grow, size, head end
  GAL-, GALVA, GAR top of head
CEL- raise. elevate, cause to be, put
GALUGALA in the last analysis
KULE sack, pouch, scrotum
GANA, GANAM of, to shepherds
AGRI early
GRAUDIN- grain, grain seed 
GARSHA style PARAZHA custom, rite
GAISHU bright, intelligent
GAZ-, GAZH- to overturn, defeat, sock
RIJA, ri-KLE throat MELE mouth
CIEts (eyes) closed, CHUCH sleep
KUOPuli, KUPLI take care of, adorn
KUP, KUPULI (long u) steam, smoke
KUR- burn, KRAsns kiln KARst heat
CIR-, CER cut CIRvis axe
  CAUR through CEL- road, way, trip
KUOKS, KEKS- wood, tree, tool
GUOvs, GUOVITE cattle
KAK-LIS neck CA-LIS chick
KUOPA, KEPA hand, together
GUV, IEGUV- attainment , in-get
KUOP- tend, take care of
GUDris wise, smart
KAUT-, KAU- strike, kill
KUKulis loaf of bread KUK- clump
KAUJA battle
GURns, GU-ZHA hip
UGUNI fire, flames
GRAUZH basket, a handful, rankle
GURds, GURdens tired, exhausted,
  at an end GRIEzh, GRUzh turn, push
KAR- (long a) greed, craving, especially
  food GRIEzt turn (S)KREJ- run
GRAUDU of grain
  saGRAUZHDU fodder, milled
KER-, CER-, CIRvis- (K=TJ)
  catch, cut, cutter
  throw together, heap, pile up
  CIRvis axe
KUOZH to bite , chew (eat in this
  sense), grind teeth, cut off

There is no H in Sumerian or Latvian



IB, EB middle, waist (bad transcription)
IB, EB to anger, curse, insult
IDA, ID, I 7 river, canal, watercourse
ID 4,8 IT 4 moon, month, moonlight
IGARA heron
IGI eye(s), see, face, before
ISIMU 2,3 ISIM 2,3 offspring

RIB- rib(s) (short i) German LEIB
RIB, RIEB (long i, ie) drone, anger
UDens water VAD- a course, channel
TEvs TETis father, moon
GARnis heron
ACI in the eye, seen
IEDZIMU, IEDZIM- birth, offspring

There is no J in Sumerian. The few words in Latvian
beginning with J appear to be orthographic modernisms,
going back to long vowels a, e, or i forms (ae, ee, ii)
or to the diphthongs ai, ie, ei or uo.
This is also true for word-interpositional J.



KAD 4,5 tie, bind KID reed mat
  KID 6 KAD 6,8 to weave a mat
KAK, GAG hinge, joint, knee, peg, nail
KALAM Sumer as a nation
KASH urine
KISI, KASH chamber pot
KARASH, GARASH military location
KASH 4 run fast, speed, quick, runner
KESHDA, KESH knot, bind, wrap, tie
  (KI+ SHITA 4)
KI earth, where, when, grain (GUR)
KINGAL commander, director
KIR 11 female lamb
KIRASHI emmer wheat for beer
KI(S)LACH threshing floor, grain pile
KU 6, KUA fish roe
KUD, KU 5 cut off, separate, tax
  KID 2,7 pinch off, remove
KUG, KU metal, silver, money
  bright, pure, sacred, cleanse
KUR mountain, highland
KUR kindle
KUR reach, attain
KUR reed container
  KUR 6 a basket with food
KUR, KUR 5 to cut GURUS 3,4
  GUR 5, KUR trim, strip, cut, notch
  GUR 10, 14 UR 4 sickle, reap,
  harvest, to shear, gather, catch
KUR 4, GUR 4, GIR 8 big, thick
fattened, strong, run, turn, roll
KUSH skin, hide
KUSH to tire
KUSHU turtle (see KISI, KASH)
KUSHU of sheep, cattle 

SIET, CIET tied together, bind,
  close(d), joined, fastened
KAK , AKA nook, corner, hook
GALMs area, seat of rule , yard 
CHUrAS urine KEZA, KIS- fluid
KAUSS cup, bowl
KAJAS legs, GAUZH very, much
SASIETA tied SASEJ tie, wrap, knot,
 bind, join together
KUO, KUR, KAD what, where, when
KUNG- the Latvian "sir"
JER- lamb
KVIESHI wheat KVASS wheat beer
KULET thresh
IKRI fish roe
KUOD, KUOst bite, bite off, separate
  KUODE, KUODIGS (codex) share
KUK- a clump, amount (applied to
  many items)
KURms mound, heap, elevation
KUR- to burn, heat, stoke
KER grab, reach, attain
reed basket, a handful, change
CER-, CERIS, CIR- cut CIRvis axe
  CAUR- through
  KER-, CER-, CIRvis- (K=TJ)
  catch, cut, cutter
KAR- (long a) greed, desire, craving
GRIEzt turn (S)KREJ- run
KAZHU of skin, hide
KUS- to tire
KAUSU bowl-shaped
KAZU of goats

Go to L - Z

See also
Sumerians, Cimmerians and Samarians


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