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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

andis kaulins avebury
Hydra - See the figure inside?

Water Words LexiLine? Logo Hebrew Indo-European
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning


Lexical similarities
between Hebrew
and Indo-European
on the basis of archaic Latvian



Water words vary -
depending on the LOCATION
-- where water is found --

(lakes, rivers, oceans, seas, wells,
artesian springs, brooks, ponds, wadis,
ocean/substance of creation) 

- or -
the FORM of water
(dew, rain, snow, ice, glaciers, slush, sleet, thaw),

(fluid, liquid),

or its USAGE
(washing, pouring, drinking),

or its human EMANATION
(urine, tears),

or  its form and extent of MOVEMENT
(waves, froth, rapids, falls, floods, leaks).

There are also other related "fluid" substances such blood, juice, semen,
"milk" (mammaries) or "magma".

Modern-day linguists, incredibly  - in the days of clear tapwater - assume that water as a linguistic matter is simply H2O. In early days, it depended on where the fluid came from. Depending on the language group and environment, one of these forms came to be the dominant form for any language's "water"-word.

For example, if we take Latin "aqua"
we find Latin AQUA "water"
and Latvian AKA, ACIŅA dim. "water well"
Hebrew AJIN "spring, source",
especially in arid regions,
and Northwest Semitic
'AG(I)MU "lake?, troubled pool" (Sivan)
i.e. a-gi-mu
frequently occurring in the texts
whereas mema (me-e-ma) is rare
(in later Hebrew this is JAM "ocean").

How can the linguists trace Latin AQUA to a non-existing hypothetical Indo-European root *akwa - for "water" where a wider non-blindered view of the evidence indicates that this particular "word" formation for water may have applied originally to a "well" or "artesian spring or source", i.e. a source of water under the ground - and not originally meaning "water" per se. Whether we can assign Northwest Semitic 'AGIMU and JAM to the above category can be disputed.

The linguists write - IMO correctly - that MAJIM i.e *ma-jim<*m-m
is at first glance a "dual"
or more likely a plurale tantum,
especially since we also find
the forms majja and majjin
in Aramaic and Syrian ("aqua, semen virile"),
Akkadian mu,
poetic Babylonian mam/wu and mj,
Ethiopian maj, PLURAL mjm
in Ugaritic and Egyptian mw (mjw) "water",
mwj "urine, semen"
whence its metaphorical use
for the concept of "son"
and found also as mwj.t "dampness".
Compare here Latvian mīz- or mīst-
(both long i as in "ee") meaning "to take a leak".

I myself presume a "dual, plurale tantum" connection
to the two human breasts of a woman
and the fluid milk "of creation" for man's children,
which we find as Indo-European *ma or plural and perhaps original onomopoetic Latin mamma "breasts", givers of fluid, which in Latvian are called pupas - and indeed, the Northwest Semitic texts, according to Sivan, show this consonantal shift between P > M.

Based on Sivan´s findings in Northwest Semitic texts,
M- "water forms" are related to P- "water forms",
whence Latvian UPE "river" > an M-form.

Words such as Latvian MAZGAJAM "to wash"
may also be related to MAJIM.

We also find Hebrew matar, Ugaritic MTR "rain",
where the -tar element is probably related
to Hebrew TAL-, dew and anything falling from heaven, including drizzle,
Latvian šal(t)- for which reason
we have the following comparability
of Hebrew matar "rain"
with Latvian mitra "damp".

I doubt the direct cognate relation of Hebrew matar "rain" with English "water" in spite of the possible relation of matar to water through m to w shift (see the Babylonian example of mam//wu above).

Latvian ūden- ūdri- < *ten, *tro and English water,
i.e. root *wed seem to relate
to Latvian VADI or VADINI "veins, streams"
and this is why many of the rivers of Europe
are similarly named

Latvian JŪRA "sea" (pronounced JOORA)
finds its comparable in Hebrew JRH or JORAEH
(variant MORAEH or MRH) - found as JE 'OR as the Hebrew name for the Nile
but also JR "rain, raindrop"
to which NAHAR and NAHAL "wadis, Mesopotamia"
are related, since, according to Sivan,
Northwest Semitic shows the shift of M to N.

Hebrew SALAEG is the same as Latvian SNIEG both meaning "snow".
Savin writes that the evidence for shifts of N to L in Northwest Semitic are weak, but nevertheless he says it does happen, the change in Semitic being alleged by some to be through Hittite influence (which I doubt).

Hebrew SHATAH "to drink" is certainly related to Latvian DZE(R)T or DZE(R)TI "to drink", especially in view of Sivan's discussion of the evidence for shifts from DZ and TS forms to S and SH forms in Northwest Semitic.

Hebrew ZAERAM "rain" finds its comparable in
Latvian DZIRA, DZIRAM "swill, slop".

Even the Hebrew word GAESHAM (GSHM) "downpour of rain" is the same as Latvian GAŽ- pronounced GAŽ- meaning "hefty downfall" - perhaps also related in some way to Latvian GAISS, GAISSAM "of the air"
whence perhaps GIZEH for the pyramids
comparable to Latvian GAISĀ "in the air, upwards").

When we see that the original root of majim is simply MA- "fluid, water" and given Latvian PLŪDI or PLO- as "flood" then Hebrew MABBUL as the term for the "great flood" is understandable as "water flood". Indeed, for water as a mythological and cosmic power as LIWJATAN (Leviathan) see Latvian LIETIN- "rain".


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