This article was originally written
before modern DNA haplotypes hit the scene,
which of course is today the probative evidence of choice,
so that the original article here has been greatly reduced
but I have left the blood group dendrite
and added an Appendix on the RH blood protein.
Discussion of DNA matter is found at my blog
| WORLD BLOOD TYPES
A Dendrite of
World Populations by Blood Groups
[Article by Andis Kaulins - using the data of Kelus and
in Hirsfeld, Probleme
d. Blutgruppenforschung, Fischer Verlag]
Dendrite goes back to 1957 and is a bit outdated.
you try your hand at getting the right solution?
How do your numbers
read from top to bottom?
The odds against you getting them all right
are against you
- unless you are a specialist in the field of blood
solution, running from top to bottom in the grey box above, is:
There were some
surprises, weren't there?
dendrite used here is a mathematical method
of bringing ALL
interrelationships on one contiguous branched line.
It shows how far
each group of people is from others
(i.e. the length of the lines is
also mathematically calculated and significant).
Dotted lines mean the
relationship is clear,
but that the exact distance is, as yet,
Here is how the dendrite graph looks
completely filled out:
APPENDIX : UPDATE
45 LexiLine Newsletter 2005 - Human Migration and the
Rh Blood Protein
We are subject to all kinds of laws and chief
among these are the laws of genetics, which are definitely supreme over
the laws made by men. Religious zealots of all persuasions should
consider the fact that what some might view to be "God in action" is
found in all of us in the unique genetic blueprint of each of our
organisms, regardless of our religious affiliation.
A special category in genetics is comprised
by our blood types, especially the ABO and Rh blood groups. In our
modern age, many citizens of civilized nations know their own ABO blood
group (A, B, O, or AB) and most also know whether they are Rh-positive
or Rh-negative, since this knowledge can be essential for healthy
A recent question from a reader of LexiLine about the origin and
mutation of the Rh protein led the Law Pundit to do a bit of research,
which is our specialty, leading to a remarkable potential discovery
about the cause for the Rh-negative mutation.
For a bit of background information, we refer
to a mathematically
produced dendrite of the world distribution of blood groups,
adapted from A. Kelus and J. Lukaszewicz (authors of Taksonomia
wroclawska w zastosowaniu do zagadnien
seroantropologii Archiwum Immunol. terap. Doswiadizalnej 1 245-254
, 1953), as presented in Ludwig Hirszfeld (also Hirschfeld or
Hirsfeld), Probleme der Blutgruppenforschung (book
review here, or see Footnote 1 below).
Also for background, we refer to a very short
discussion of the prevalence
of Rh-negative in certain ethnic groups by Steve Mack,
Post-doc/Fellow, Molecular and Cell Biology, Children's Hospital
Oakland Research Institute.
A chart of the ethnic distribution of Rh+
(Rh-positive) and Rh- (Rh-negative) blood alleles (based on data from
the American Association of Blood Banks, AABS) is found at the bottom
of the article at http://www.pjms.com.pk/issues/aprjun05/article/article14.html.
The distribution table is located just before
the conclusion section of the article at the end.
All modern genetic DNA evidence points to an
"out-of-Africa" origin for humanity. Hence, it is our view that Rh+
(Rh-positive) is the original Rh blood allele in humans, since black
Africans in Africa who have not mixed either with white populations or
with mixed-race persons have ONLY this Rh allele and no evidence of Rh-
Since Rh- (Rh-negative) is an allele which is
found predominantly among white populations (ca.
40-45% in Europe), it must clearly be a mutation which followed
after man's migrations from Africa to Europe.
Moreover, Rh-negative is found much more
frequently among A and O blood groups, which are the major blood types
in Western Europe, whereas Rh-negative is much rarer among persons with
B and AB blood types. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type
New research has been published about the Rh
protein by Sydney G.
Kustu and William
Inwood, and we think that it is so important that it will
ultimately be awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine because of its
fundamental potential impact on biological and genetic research.
S. Kustu and W. Inwood, Biological gas
channels for NH3 and CO2: evidence that Rh (Rhesus) proteins are CO2
channels, Transfus. Clin. Biol. (Transfusion Clinique et
Biologique (Paris), 13:103-10, 2006. [TCB
Kwang-Seo Kim, Eithne Feild, Natalie King,
Takuro Yaoi, Sydney Kustu, and William Inwood, Spontaneous
Mutations in the Ammonium Transport Gene AMT4 of Chlamydomonas
reinhardtii, Genetics, Vol. 170, 631-644, June
As noted in the Berkeley article (under the graphic
caption) the Rh protein plays a significant role as a channel for
CO2 gas (carbon dioxide) across cell membranes in the body:
proteins act as gas channels that help speed the transfer of carbon
dioxide (CO2) in and out of red blood cells. CO2 can also pass through
the cell membrane unaided (above right), but not quickly enough."
The PubMed Abstract writes:
of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of
California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
evidence from our laboratory indicates that Amt/Mep proteins are gas
channels for NH3, the first biological gas channels to be described.
This view has now been confirmed by structural evidence and is
displacing the previous belief that Amt/Mep proteins were active
transporters for the NH4+ ion. Still disputed is the physiological
substrate for Rh proteins, the only known homologues of Amt/Mep
proteins. Many think they are mammalian ammonium (NH4+ or NH3)
transporters. Following Monod's famous dictum, "Anything found to be
true of E. coli must also be true of elephants" [Perspect. Biol. Med.
47(1) (2004) 47], we explored the substrate for Rh proteins in the
unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C. reinhardtii is one
of the simplest organisms to have Rh proteins and it also has Amt
proteins. Physiological studies in this microbe indicate that the
substrate for Rh proteins is CO2 and confirm that the substrate for Amt
proteins is NH3. Both are readily hydrated gases. Knowing that
transport of CO2 is the ancestral function of Rh proteins supports the
inference from hematological research that a newly evolving role of the
human Rh30 proteins, RhCcEe and RhD, is to help maintain the flexible,
flattened shape of the red cell.
16563833 [PubMed - in process]"
Hence,it would seem to be a likely hypothesis
to this observer, presented here for the first time, that Rh-
(Rh-negative) developed due to a (presumably beneficial) change
mandated in our human breathing of the Earth's air in the more
northerly European latitudes.
This would make sense since there is in fact
a global air-sea flux of CO2 (carbon dioxide) which could correspond to
the mutation we see in Rh from Africa (Rh+) to Western Europe (Rh-). As
noted in a Colloquium
of the US National Academy of Sciences:
polar oceans of the both hemispheres are the major sinks for
atmospheric CO2, whereas the equatorial oceans are the major sources
for CO2. The Atlantic Ocean is the most important CO2 sink, providing
about 60% of the global ocean uptake, while the Pacific Ocean is
neutral because of its equatorial source flux being balanced by the
sink flux of the temperate oceans. The Indian and Southern Oceans take
up about 20% each."
(The above is quoted from the Abstract
of Taro Takahashi, Richard A. Feely, Ray F. Weiss, Rik H. Wanninkhof,
David W. Chipman, Stewart C. Sutherland, and Timothy T. Takahashi,
Global air-sea flux of CO2: An estimate based on measurements of
sea–air pCO2 difference, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,
Vol. 94, pp. 8292–8299, August 1997, colloquium paper presented at a
colloquium entitled "Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change," organized by
Charles D. Keeling, held November 13–15, 1995, at the National
Academyof Sciences, Irvine, CA.)
In other words, the Rh mutation from
Rh-positive to Rh-negative is arguably environmental in cause, with the
human body adjusting to different CO2 and oxygen conditions as present
in Western Europe and as opposed to those prevalent in the original
homeland of Africa, as evidenced by the differing atmospheric CO2 sinks
prevailing in oceans bordering on the two different geographic
locations. Presumably, the reason for the mutation was in part "the
air" (and climate) and the human body's changed oxygen (O2) /
carbondioxide (CO2) balance.
We presume that the reason for the mutation
can also be analogized to the body's reaction to decreased
levels of oxygen at higher altitudes, which leads to substantial
to a lower oxygen environment causes the body to produce a chain of
biological reactions. The heart and lungs are stimulated to increase
their functions and even over the long term, to increase in size. Blood
vessels dilate and new capillaries are formed in the heart, brain and
skeletal muscles. In the blood, levels of erythropoietin (EPO),
haemoglobin, myoglobin and 2,3 diglycerophosphate increase. All these
factors make the blood capable of carrying more oxygen and on a
cellular level there is a growth of the cellular structures needed for
the metabolism of oxygen. After IHT (Intermittent Hypoxic Treatment)
the lactate threshold increases indicating that the body is utilising
available oxygen more efficiently."
The same holds true for thermoregulation,
i.e. the body's response to temperature. The Medical Department of the
U.S. Army has published a book titled Medical
Aspects of Harsh Environments (Volume I), which contains a great
amount of relevant information about human adaptation and human
physiological responses to heat and cold. A map of the average wet bulb
globe temperature (WBGT) index in the northern hemisphere during July
is shown at page 103 of that volume and a similar map at page 105 of
that volume shows the relationship between selected regional skin
temperatures and core body temperature at rest over a range of
temperate and hot climatic conditions.
It is clear from the discussion in subsequent
pages of that volume that thermoregulation is related to oxygen uptake
and thus of course, conversely, to carbon dioxide expulsion. Moreover,
not only does the respiratory system react significantly to heat and
cold (see page 366 of that volume), but this is accompanied by changes
in the solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood (p. 368): "as the temperature decreases, the
solubility of carbon dioxide in blood increases."
Since the Rh protein affects the rate at
which carbon dioxide "channels through" cell membranes, its role may
well be comparable in respiration to that found for ion pathways in the
plasma membrane. As noted at page 179 of that volume:
do not readily cross lipid bilayers despite their large concentration
gradients across plasma membranes. In general, they require specialized
channels or carriers to do so..... Membrane channels are proteins that
contain hydrophilic pores that penetrate the lipid bilayer, permitting
the diffusion of specific ions down their electrochemical gradients to
enter or leave cells."
Given the fact
that "the Rh polypeptide is a major fatty acid-acylated
erythrocyte membrane protein", i.e. an element of our red blood cells -
which transport oxygen to the blood, the discovery that Rh
proteins act as gas channels for carbon dioxide in living organisms is
one of the most important discoveries made in medicine (and
genetics) - ever.
The book review in German at SpringerLink.com
by L. Ballowitz of Hirszfeld, L., Probleme der Blugruppenforschung, is
L.: Probleme der Blutgruppenforschung. Mit einem
Geleitwort von Prof. Dr. O. Prokop, Berlin. 160 Seiten, 29 Abbildungen,
64 Tabellen. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 1960. Preis: Gln. DM 22,-
jeden, der an blutgruppenserologischen Fragen interessiert ist, wird
diese ausgezeichnete Zusammenschau über die Entwicklung der Lehre von
den Blutgruppen äußerst anregend sein. Hirszfeld ist seit
etwa 40 Jahren durch zahlreiche, zum Teil bahnbrechende Arbeiten mit an
dem raschen Anwachsen der Kenntnisse auf diesem Gebiet beteiligt. Auch
in dem vorliegenden Buch ist vor allem die äußerst vielseitige,
weitschauende und doch kritische Interpretation der erhobenen Befunde
bemerkenswert. Besonders ausführlich sind Fragen der Vererbung von
Blutgruppen, solche der Anthropologie, ferner Möglichkeiten der
Vaterschafts- und Mutterschaftsausschließung sowie die Immunpathologie
der Schwangerschaft abgehandelt. Eine gute Orientierung ist über die
von dem Verf. entwickelte Pleiaden- und Abortus-Theorie möglich. Durch
das Einfügen persönlicher Erfahrungen wird die Darstellung angenehm
aufgelockert. Prokop gebührt Dank, daß er die Veröffentlichung dieses
1953 abgeschlossenen und vom Verf. hinterlassenen Buches möglich machte.
In reply to a reader's posting, this was posted subsequently:
... I see that I need to express some things more clearly on my
I agree with you that DNA provides us with the best proof for the
For the DNA evidence, we can look e.g. to:
DNA Clarifies Human Evolution
But also our blood groups are very close to the Chimpanzees and
Gorillas. See e.g.:
Long Foreground: Human Prehistory
However, I did not mean to imply in my Rh blood protein posting that
the recent findings "prove" the out-of-Africa theory. Rather, my
argument is that if the out-of-Africa hypothesis is true, as I think it
is (even the Neanderthals are regarded to be out-of-Africa, but in
another time frame) then the new knowledge about the Rh blood protein -
derived from a study of the Rh protein in algae - points the way to
explain the Rh blood proteins in humans as responses to oxygen and
carbon dioxide environment.
Obviously, there is still a long way to go, but if the finding in algae
is verified in humans that the Rh protein functions as a channel for
carbon dioxide (CO2) transport through blood cell membranes - and this
still needs to be verified - then scientific research will have made a
gigantic leap in understanding fundamental changes in the genetic
material of living things.
It is true that the current Neanderthal discussion is vexing. What I
myself have seen written about the Neanderthals in past and present
writings seems mostly to consist of overly broad conjectures based on
very little evidence. I am of the impression that neither laymen, nor
the news media, nor even mainstream scientists know enough about this
yet. See in this regard also Michael P. Germano and his posting on Neanderthals Again?
Has the Media Got It Right?
What is significant is the geographic area in which we have thus far
found Neanderthal remains, which largely corresponds to what we would
today call Europe. See http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo2/mod_homo_2.htm
A number of years ago, before it became fashionable, I suggested that
humans formed from an interbreeding of two primate groups, based upon
blood types. See http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi9.htm
see in this regard also http://www.dadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Related_blood_group_factors_in_animals
where it is written:
"In the ABO blood group system, humans and
chimpanzees both have A
blood group antigens, but the DNA nucleotide sequences are different.
The differences are not minor.
humans and gorillas
both have blood group B, and their DNA nucleotide sequences are pretty
much identical, with only minor differences."
However, I would imagine that such
interbreeding, if it occurred, would have to have taken place before
Man arrived in Europe. Indeed, where the territories of gorillas and
chimpanzees in Eastern Africa meet is where we find the first evidence
of human skulls. How the Neanderthals fit into this picture is still
anybody's guess and will ultimately have to be decided by deciphering
their human genome, as
is being done
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