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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

Latvian Dainas LexiLine? Logo Selections III
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning


Astronomical Dainas
Latvian Astronomy in Verse Form


The five planets visible to the naked eye in ancient times (from the outside of the solar system inwards to the Sun) were Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury.

The following identifications of planets in the Latvian Dainas are our identification and thus still provisional, awaiting further examination by other scholars.

KARTA or the variant KARTE
Saturn - so we allege -
was the Latvian Daughter of the Sun known as Kārta.
In Latvian kārta means "layer" so that Saturn was probably named for its layered rings, in Ancient Greek there is a similar term for Saturn, Kronos, for the rings as a crown. In Babylonian Saturn is KAYA.manu.

LAIMA or the variant LAIME
Jupiter - so we allege -
was the Latvian Daughter of the Sun known as Laima
Laime means "luck" in Latvian and Jupiter has retained this identity as the planet of luck down to this day. Ancient Czech Kra-LOMOC for Jupiter shows the same root.

MARA or the variant MARITE
Mars -- so we allege --
was the Latvian Daughter of the Sunknown as Māra.
Sumerian for Mars
is close to the Latvian Mārite (diminutive of Māra)
in the Dainas.

Venus -- so we allege --
was the Latvian Daughter of the Sun known as Dēkla.
This is the same as Sumerian and Babylonian DIL.bat or DELE.bat "Venus" with DEKLA = DELE.
In modern Latvian Venus is called
Austra, Auseklis or Auseklite, meaning "Morning Star, Rising Star", but it is not found as such in the ancient Dainas. The later name AUSTRA for "morning star" is surely found in ancient Ishtar and Astarte as terms for Venus.

Mercury was the Latvian Daughter of the Sun known as Pastarīte
Pastarīte was regarded to be the "last born"
of the planets and an orphan as well.


Three planets were also known in Latvian as the Laimiņas, which means "Fates" and this same concept is also found in the Greek and Roman pantheon of gods as the Lamiae Tres, who,
just as in the Latvian also show retention of the "Daughters of the Sun" theme, for Lampetia was the Daughter of Helios (the Sun), Lamia was the "Daughter of Poseidon" and Lamos was the "Son of Poseidon". Pusdiena means "noon" in Latvian, i.e. the Sun at its highest point.


Daina Number 54834
refers specifically to the Three Fates
and reads as follows
with respect to their "oracle"
(Latvian reproduced here without diacritical markings):

Trīs Laimiņas sagājušas,
Mana mūža licējiņas.
Viena saka:
ugun' degti,
slīkti udenī;
Vel trešāji pasacija:
Lai par mūžu barenīte.
Three, the Fates,
who came together
Of my course of life
the bidders.
One proclaimed:
"Go burn in fire!"
Said the other:
"Drown in water!"
While the third foretold: "Forever, Orphan shall you always be."

The Three Fates in Classical times are
LAMIAE TRES = a group of gods in threes, as the fates
LAMPETIA = daughter of Helios
LAMIA= Daughter of Poseidon
W.H. Roscher, Griechischen und Romischen Mythologie
B.G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1894-1897

The Daughters of the Sun
and the Sons of God

DAINA 33759:

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Dieva dēli tiltu taisa

Sons of God, they make a bridge

Vairāk zelta ne sudraba

More of gold and less of silver

Saules meita pāri gāja

She, the Daughter of the Sun

Kā lapiņa drebēdama

Passed upon it, like a trembling leaf

DAINA 33625 (Variant 10)
All variants, collected from all over Latvia,
agree in their basics.

Latvian Daina

English Translation


[bracketed notes by Andis Kaulins]

Māte savas meitas skaita

Now the mother counts her daughters

Vai ir visas vakarā

Are they all found in the West ?

Visas bija vakarā

All were there, but PASTARITE  [Mercury]

Pastarītes vien nebij

Had not come to join the rest.


Pastarīte aiztecējsi

Run away had Pastarite

Gar upīte dziedādama

Singing 'long the river side [ecliptic, Milky Way]

Gar upīte dziedādama

Singing 'long the river side

Ievu ziedus meklēdama

Searching for the cherry blossoms


Ievu ziedus meklējot

Searching for the cherry blossoms

Sastop tautas celiņā

She met TAUTAS in her pathway [Thoth]

Sastop tautas celiņā

She met Tautas in her pathway

Iegrūž viņu upītē

He pushed her into the river


Tek upīte līku loku

Bent, the river flowed, meandered

Iznes viņu maliņā

Set her out upon the side

Iznes viņu maliņā

Set her out upon the side

Brāļu lauka galiņā

At the end of brother's fields


[there are 9 such fields of the Latvian "Sons of God",
just as on Sumerian "Sons of God" list]

Tur uzauga kupla liepa

There a bushy linden grew up

Deviņiem žuburiem

Being forked in branches nine

Devitā žuburā

At the ninth of these the brother

Bālēļins kokles grieza

Starting harping (sawing) wood in twine


Sāk brālitis koklēdams

Said the brother, harping, playing (sawing)

Tās koklītes skani skan

Loud that harping (sawing) sure does ring


Sak māmiņa raudādama

But the mother said while crying

Tā pastares dvēselīte

That the sounds were just the soul

Tā pastares dvēselīte

Just the soul of PASTARITE

Kas noslīka upītē

Who had drowned in the river.

Daina 33906 states that:

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Saul are Dievu ienaidā

Sun and God were fighting

Pusdienā, pusnaktī

At noon, at midnite:

Dieviņš meta Saulītei

God threw at the Sun

Ar sudraba akmentiņu

A silver stone.

DAINA 34018 states:

Latvian Daina

English Translation

Trīs dieniņas, trīs naksniņas

Three days, three nights

Saul ar Dievu ienaidā

 Sun and God were fighting

Dieva dēli salauzuši

The Sons of God had broken

Saules meitas

The crown (wreath, corona)
of the Daughter of the Sun

Dainas at lexi54, lexi99 , lexi197 and lexi200

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