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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

andis kaulins avebury
Hydra - See the figure inside?

Earth in Hebrew LexiLine? Logo & Indo-European
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning

Hebrew has many terms that can be compared to similar  Indo-European terms and we use archaic Latvian as tool that provides actually existing words rather than linguistic hypotheticals to show how close the generic relationship between Hebrew and Indo-European may be.

Earth, Erde, Eretz (bottom of page)
Zeme, Khemia, Hemi, Humus

In Latvian ZEME means "earth" as "soil"
and thus ZEM-, ZEME in Latvian is also the word "below",
i.e. what you have below your feet.

ZEME "below" was opposed to that which is or extends
"above" the earth. which in Latvian is AUGŠĀ "above, up"
and so it is not suprising that Latvian AUG- means "grow",
making it identical to the hypothetical Indo-European root *aug.

AUGŠĀ may be related to Latvian GAISĀ, GAISS "in the air, air".

Hence, in Latvian ZEMĒ and GAISS (AUGŠĀ) - both locative case -
are opposites, applying to the "where" of UP or DOWN.

We find Latvian ZEME later in language evolution
as SEMI- or HEMI in Greek and Latin
as also in Greek KHEMIA "Egypt, Land".

In English, we retain ZEME "earth, soil"
(Lithuanian ZHEM-) in its original meaning
in CHEMistry, traced to Arabic AL-KIMIYA
which is Latvian instrumental case AR ZEMI
"with Earth, using soil, using products of the earth".

 Earth, Erde, Eretz 

Hebrew ERETZ, English EARTH and German ERDE
are traced by linguists back to the erroneous root of *er-
allegedly meaning "earth, ground"
but this is already a later description of the
soil not applying to the distinction of up and down
but rather encompassing the Latvian root ĀRA
meaning "outside" and applied as ARA and AR
to the "plow", literally "to out the earth"
in Latvian also as AROT, AROTS "plowed land"
but also German ERZ "ore outed from the earth"

Variants are Latvian ĀREŠO "outer"
ARŠU or ARSI "will plow"
thus like Northwest Semitic texts in the syllabic terms
ar-su      ar-si

Latvian IERAŽO "cultivate"
is virtually identical to
Akkadian ERESHU and ARASHU "to cultivate".
Akkadian ARISHUTU "agriculture, tillage of the soil"
can be compared to Latvian IERAŽOTO ("that cultivated")

Go To YLD Yeled Lad Child 


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The owner and webmaster of is Andis Kaulins
B.A. University of Nebraska; J.D. Stanford University Law School
Former Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, FFA, Trier Law School
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