Eclipses and Chronology
OF THE PHARAOHS
PYRAMID SITES in Egypt
possible that the Pharaohs
may have put
some of their
on the paths
of solar eclipses,
played a role in chronology.
dates can possibly be used
ancient solar eclipses in Egypt
The idea of eclipses as being of such great importance
came from a
posting to LexiLine by ChasInca
and from an internet page of Amir Bey
who used the following sources to determine eclipses
Solar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East, by M. Kudlek
and E.H. Mickler.
The Canon of Solar Eclipses, by J. Meeus and H. Mucke
Solar Fire 4.07, a software program developed by
Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East by M. Kudlek and
E. H. Mickler.]
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the cross of the ecliptic and the
celestial equator at the star Antares viz. Dschubba. This marks the
reign of the Pharaoh HETEP-SEKHEMWY
= Manetho's Boethos (Boötes) = the star Dschubba, Arabic - Jabbah,
Vedic ANUradha. The hieroglyph at Sakkara reads Anu-tris (Baltic
Andris) = Antares rather than Dschubba. That is why the three main
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the cross of the ecliptic and the
celestial equator at the Pleiades / Aldebaran. Kate Spence,
Egyptologist at Cambridge, recently put the building of the Great
Pyramid to 2467 BC plus or minus 5 years based on her positioning of
the star Mizar at that time, but that is wrong. The April 1, 2471 BC
eclipse applied to the Red Pyramid
(for the red star Aldebaran) and the more northerly of the two pyramids
2469 BC - Solar
at Spica in Virgo. This eclipse led to the building of the second of
the two pyramids of Snofru.
It is now easy to determine which of the two Snofru pyramids was built
first - about which the scholars have long disputed - the center of the
2469 eclipse was further south, and this is the Bent
2430 BC -
Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Zosma (Duhr) and Chort at the point of the
applies to the Great
Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the crossing of the ecliptic and celestial
equator at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and
Perseus.This would be the Pyramid of RAthosis =
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "boat of Capricorn" under Aquila.
According to the Kings after Khasekhemwy on the Turin Canon, this can
only be Unas
whose cartouche might read WA-N-AGS "eagle", i.e. "Aquila".
2159 BC - Antef
Solar Eclipse over Egypt exactly at the cross viz. middle of the
constellation of Cancer
2079 BC - Antef
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt exactly at Spica in Virgo - we know this is
Antef II rather than Antef III because the "Horus" serech shows a
"bushy" hieroglyph - Spica / Virgo.
BC - 39th year
the reign of Mentuhotep
- Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the crossing of the ecliptic and
celestial equator at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between
Auriga and Perseus.
1884 BC - Amenemhet
(with sons Senwosret II and III) Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in
Virgo. This was most likely the expedition to the center of the eclipse
taken in the 24th year of Amenemhet's reign and the 4th year of
Senwosret's concurrent reign. Egyptologists call this an expedition to
punish the desert dwellers, but for that it is unlikely that he would
take a young son along. This would place the beginning of Amenemhet
II's reign at 1908 BC.
1741 BC - Chendjer
Solar Eclipse in the Boat of Capricorn, most clearly marked with the
eclipse of Chendjer as a darkened circle next to a container-like
1699 BC - Sobekhotep
- Solar Eclipse at the Pleiades and the crossing of the ecliptic and
the celestial equator underneath the gate to Heaven between Auriga and
Perseus. The heiroglyphs mark this as a partial sun followed by the
swallowing windpipe symbol. According to Artapanus (writing about 300
BC), Chaneferre - i.e. the Pharaoh just noted above - was the Pharaoh
during whose reign Moses
was born. No contrary evidence gives us cause to doubt this historical
record. Since Chaneferre apparently ruled only about 10 years, this
puts the birth of Moses between maximally 10 years either side of 1699
BC, and we put it at 1707 BC due to the 80-year correlation to Exodus
which we place as congruent with the explosion of Santorin ca. August
4, 1627 BC, based on astronomical considerations. Moses is later the
first king of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes as Sobek-EMSAf
a name actually written in the hieroglpyhs as "MO-SHE" (also known as
Sobekhotep VIII or Sechem-re Schedtaui). Since we know that Moses flew
from Thebes when he was around 40, this puts him in the Eastern Delta
Region of Egypt ca. 1667 BC, where Moses's Biblical Midianites are none
other than the Hyksos, i.e. the Palestinians (nomadic desert dwellers),
of whose king Moses takes one daughter as a wife. The 16th Dynasty King
known as Anather is then Gideon (so also clearly readable according to
the hieroglyphs as Hand-D-N i.e. GI-DI-N). See Midianites.
- Solar Eclipse right above the upraised hand of Orion (near Aldebaran)
below the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is the
eclipse of Amenhotep I.
1478 BC - Solar
the "pot" of Gemini. This is in the reign of Hatshepsut and co-regent
III) . Hatshepsut in our view was the Biblical Deborah.
See the Appendix to this posting as an update.
1338 BC -
Solar Eclipse at the "upraised arm of Orion" below the gate to heaven
between Auriga and Persus. This is the eclipse of Amenhotep
1258 BC -
Solar Eclipse at Regulus in Leo. This is Amenhotep
IV, known as Echnaton
(Akhenaten), and as the Biblical King SAUL, whose
hieroglyph clearly shows an eclipsed
object. We would expect the eclipse to have passed over Amarna.
Echnaton must have seen the eclipse and resurrection of the Sun during
his reign at the kingly star Regulus to be a particularly great omen
and thereafter presented himself as the "Sun King SAUL". In
Indo-European e.g. Latvian the word "SAULE" means "Sun", i.e.
SOL. See Evidence.
BC - Solar
near Spica and Virgo. This is Ramses II,
the Biblical King
The RA or SAULE name is the "sun name" of the king and shows the
position of the sun. The AMUN name is the "moon name". In the case of
Ramses II the hieroglyphs in his cartouche indicate that this was the
confluence of both the sun and the moon at Virgo - an eclipse. See Ramses II was King Solomon.
- Solar Eclipse below the back end of Pisces, under Pegasus, the Great
Square, in the 29th year of reign of Ramses II and might be what is
marked as an "earthquake" (?) at this time at Abu Simbel.
BC - Solar
Zosma in Leo. This is Siptah,
clearly marked with an eclipsed round object in the hieroglyph and
perhaps the hieroglyph of Sethnacht
also marked this event.
957 BC -
Solar Eclipse in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. This is Herihor.
948 BC -
Solar Eclipse above Orion. This is Pinodjem.
932 BC -
Solar Eclipse at Markab. This is Masaharta.
BC - Solar
at Denebola in Leo - the end tail star of Leo is shown as the tail in
the hieroglyph of Psusennes
and III (same person)
AN-TEF is as ENAS = Latvian "eclipse, shade")
BC - Solar
at Denebola in Leo. This is Tefnacht.
- Solar Eclipse at Spica in Virgo. This is an unusual heavenly
conjunction because it also involves an occultation also of Jupiter,
Saturn, and Mercury, so that, with either the Sun or the Moon as the
host, there were four visitors. These four "visitors" are glorified in
the monument of Pianchi
517 BC -
Solar Eclipse at Sheratan in Aries. This is Taharqa
(Aries) going to Tanutamani
BC - Solar
at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus
493 BC - Solar
at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus
25 LexiLine Newsletter 2006 Hatshepsut (Biblical
Deborah) Lost and Found
who I have identified for years as the biblical Deborah, has now been
claimed to have been "lost and found" as a mummy on the third floor of
the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The Egypt
State Information Service writes:
true mummy of ancient Egyptian queenHatshepsut was discovered in the
third floor of the Egyptian Museum inCairo, Secretary General of
Supreme Council for Antiquities Zahi Hawwasrevealed on Thursday.
mummy was missing among thousands of artifacts lying in the museum,he
said during his lecture at the New York-based Metropolitan Museum
He said for
archaeologists believed that a mummy found in Luxorwas that of the
Egyptian queen. It was a streak of luck, he said, tofind this mummy.
Metropolitan is hosting a Hatshepsut exhibition that displays 270
artifacts on the life history of the queen.
American museum honoured Hawwas and his accompanying delegation
inappreciation of their effort to unravel the mysteries of the
Is Hawass right? We think so.
First, let us be clear that in
Deborah = Hatshepsut
Barak = Thutmosis I
only "Queen" of Egypt
was the only "Female Judge" of pre-monarchic Israel.
They are one and the same person.
to current scholarship, the name Deborah allegedly meant "bee" but in
fact her name is given in hieroglyphs by the symbols of the bread
(TE or DE), the vase pot (PO or BO incorrectly read by the
Egyptologists as H because they have confused a reading for "fluid",
i.e. the content of the pot), and the lion symbol (L or R, as
Egyptologists should have known from the use of the lion for that sound
in later eras). Actually the original name is something like BTL or PTL
which I think is Hebrew hlwtb (bethula) meaning "virgin" or
as her assigned place in the heavens. The term la-pi-do-th
affiliated with Deborah as her alleged partner, just comes from a
different reading of that same hieroglyph, moving the order of letters
around, and was probably intentional. We explain this later below.
astronomical conclusion that Deborah was Virgo is also verified by the
picture and hieroglyphs found on one of the stone slabs marking the
entrance to tomb KV20, where Deborah (Hatshepsut) is shown sitting on
the back of a long downward and then upward curving giant serpent
(clearly Hydra) at the exact position marking Virgo (p. 94 of the
German version of The Complete Valley of the Kings by Reeves and
Wilkinson). This marks the seventh hour of the so-called amduat
the hidden chambers of the hours of night, which of course are
astronomical regions of the stars and can be followed quite easily - my
discovery - from the Spring Equinox point to the Taurus to Osiris
(Orion) and onward toward Hydra and the deepest underworld, for in
about 1500 BC the lowest point of the celestial equator in its
26000-year circuit is in Hydra and Deborah's staff in the picture on
the stone slab referred to above marks that lowest point at the bottom
of the neck of Hydra.
Let me also point out that Barak
in Hebrew means "lightning" which is of course then related to Latvian
PERK-onis "thunder". In Latvian there is however another homophonic
word and that is PEREKlis (origin of the Greek name Pericles) =BARAK
and that word means "roost of a bird", and that is why the name
hieroglyph of Thutmosis, who is BARAK, is a bird on a roost
a word also found in Akkadian by the way. Hence, there is little
that tomb KV38 in its astronomically intentional high roost in the
Valley of Kings was in fact the original tomb of Barak (Thutmosis I)
and that John Romers' dating of KV38
after KV20 is simply wrong. KV 20 indeed represents the amduat in its
shape and that is why it was dug so deeply underground. It had an
astronomical significance. All of these observations are my
discoveries. The Egyptologists are asleep.
As for the area of the heavens
which was intended as BARAK's roost, note that parqenoj
("parthenos" - virgin)
i.e. PARQ = BARAK, also means virgin, so we have a match with
and Barak in terms of where their realms were placed in the heavens.
Deborah's realm would be Virgo and Barak's Bootes above it. As noted by
Richard Hinckley Allen in Star Names (p. 101), Al Biruni refers to
Arcturus as "the second calf of the lion" and Spica (in Virgo) is "the
first calf of the lion", which "first calf" of the lion we see in
Deborah's hieroglyphic name. Ideler showed that Arabic Bootes was also
BAKKAR, the Herdsman (Allen p. 97), obviously an Arabic name
But of course, that is not all. Let
us turn to the
tombs in the Valley of Kings at THEBES (recall that Latvian
means "heaven" and THEBES = DEBESS). The Valley of Kings at Thebes was
the "heaven" to which the deceased pharaohs were sent.
Relying on the Thames and Hudson
book, The Complete Valley of the Kings, which I have in my
library in the German version as Das Tal der Koenige, by
Nicholas Reeves and Richard H. Wilkinson, Econ, 1997 and various
similar sources we discover that:
Deborah's (Hatshepsut's) tomb was
first planned to be a cliff tomb at Wadi
Sikket Taquet el-Zaid
[German Wadi Sikket Taqa el-Zeide],
discovered by Howard Carter in 1916, but this "rock
" was never finished and never used.
after Barak, Deborah's father passed away, she became the regent and
decided to make her own tomb KV20, bringing her beloved father down
from tomb KV38 to join her at some point. Note here that it is
generally thought Deborah's "partner" was Lapidoth, a term also
meaning"red-haired", but she had no partner. Lapidoth was Deborah.
the mummies were moved to save them from the grave robbers in the
of Ramses IX, it is clear that Deborah's (Hatshepsut's) mummy was
saved to the nearest smaller and thus less endangered tomb, that of her
wet nurse in Tomb KV60,with the mummy for protection probably then
placed in that coffin in the stead of her nurse. There were thus in
fact two mummies found in KV60. One of them is still there and the
other of these mummies, the blondish red-haired one is the one that was
taken to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and which is now being hailed as
the mummy of Deborah (Hatshepsut).
And here is my conclusion.
is no doubt that the mummy with goldish-blonde red hair is Deborah
(Hatshepsut), for Deborah was in fact famed for her red hair as
Lapidoth, which is just another reading of the hieroglyphs of her name.
Other people pooh-bah Zahi Hawass
as a showman, which he
definitely is, and a good one, but I think he has an excellent nose for
the truth, because he is sincerely interested in how actual history
took place, and that is often more important than anything. In the
instant case, we support Hawass in his conclusion. The blondish
red-haired mummy is clearly Deborah (Hatshepsut).
The exhibition at the Metropolitan
Museum is titled "Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh".
Imagine how many people would come to that exhibition if they knew that
Hatshepsut was the biblical Deborah. New York City would have to worry
about sinking because of the weight of the visitors.
I should note in closing that I was
of course at the Hatschepsut exhibition when it was held here in
Germany in Speyer
in the year 2002 and it was terrific, and I can only recommend to all
of you to go to New York and see this wonderful exhibition. I also
recommend a publication I bought in German which is perhaps by now
available in English. It is: Alfred Grimm and Sylvia Schoske, Hatschepsut: KoenigiIN Ägyptens
1999, Heft 8 der Schriften der Aegyptischen Sammlung