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The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

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shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

Pyramids, Chronology LexiLine? Logo & Solar Eclipses in Egypt
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Egyptian Pyramids,
Solar Eclipses and Chronology

calculated by SOLAR ECLIPSES

It is possible that the Pharaohs
may have put some of their memorial temples
on the paths of solar eclipses,
and eclipses surely played a role in chronology.

The following dates can possibly be used
for chronology,

based on ancient solar eclipses in Egypt

[Note: The idea of eclipses as being of such great importance
came from a posting to LexiLine by ChasInca
and from an internet page of Amir Bey [now at]
who used the following sources to determine eclipses over Egypt
Solar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East, by M. Kudlek and E.H. Mickler.
The Canon of Solar Eclipses, by J. Meeus and H. Mucke
Solar Fire 4.07, a software program developed by Esoteric Technologies
Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East by M. Kudlek and E. H. Mickler.]

November 19, 2837 BC - Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the cross of the ecliptic and the celestial equator at the star Antares viz. Dschubba. This marks the reign of the Pharaoh HETEP-SEKHEMWY = Manetho's Boethos (Boötes) = the star Dschubba, Arabic - Jabbah, Vedic ANUradha. The hieroglyph at Sakkara reads Anu-tris (Baltic Andris) = Antares rather than Dschubba. That is why the three main sources differ.

April 1, 2471 BC - Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the cross of the ecliptic and the celestial equator at the Pleiades / Aldebaran. Kate Spence, Egyptologist at Cambridge, recently put the building of the Great Pyramid to 2467 BC plus or minus 5 years based on her positioning of the star Mizar at that time, but that is wrong. The April 1, 2471 BC eclipse applied to the Red Pyramid (for the red star Aldebaran) and the more northerly of the two pyramids of Snofru.

September 2, 2469 BC - Solar Eclipse at Spica in Virgo. This eclipse led to the building of the second of the two pyramids of Snofru. It is now easy to determine which of the two Snofru pyramids was built first - about which the scholars have long disputed - the center of the 2469 eclipse was further south, and this is the Bent Pyramid.

July 25, 2430 BC - Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Zosma (Duhr) and Chort at the point of the Summer Solstice.
This eclipse applies to the Great Pyramid of Cheops.

March 23, 2340 BC - Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the crossing of the ecliptic and celestial equator at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and Perseus.This would be the Pyramid of RAthosis = Khaf-RA, Chephren.

December 20, 2289 BC - Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "boat of Capricorn" under Aquila. According to the Kings after Khasekhemwy on the Turin Canon, this can only be Unas whose cartouche might read WA-N-AGS "eagle", i.e. "Aquila".

June 29, 2159 BC - Antef I - Solar Eclipse over Egypt exactly at the cross viz. middle of the constellation of Cancer

September 11, 2079 BC - Antef II - Solar Eclipse over Egypt exactly at Spica in Virgo - we know this is Antef II rather than Antef III because the "Horus" serech shows a "bushy" hieroglyph - Spica / Virgo.

April 20, 2044 BC - 39th year of the reign of Mentuhotep - Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the crossing of the ecliptic and celestial equator at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and Perseus.

September 15, 1884 BC - Amenemhet II (with sons Senwosret II and III) Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo. This was most likely the expedition to the center of the eclipse taken in the 24th year of Amenemhet's reign and the 4th year of Senwosret's concurrent reign. Egyptologists call this an expedition to punish the desert dwellers, but for that it is unlikely that he would take a young son along. This would place the beginning of Amenemhet II's reign at 1908 BC.

December 21, 1741 BC - Chendjer - Solar Eclipse in the Boat of Capricorn, most clearly marked with the eclipse of Chendjer as a darkened circle next to a container-like symbol.

April 16, 1699 BC - Sobekhotep IV Chaneferre - Solar Eclipse at the Pleiades and the crossing of the ecliptic and the celestial equator underneath the gate to Heaven between Auriga and Perseus. The heiroglyphs mark this as a partial sun followed by the swallowing windpipe symbol. According to Artapanus (writing about 300 BC), Chaneferre - i.e. the Pharaoh just noted above - was the Pharaoh during whose reign Moses was born. No contrary evidence gives us cause to doubt this historical record. Since Chaneferre apparently ruled only about 10 years, this puts the birth of Moses between maximally 10 years either side of 1699 BC, and we put it at 1707 BC due to the 80-year correlation to Exodus which we place as congruent with the explosion of Santorin ca. August 4, 1627 BC, based on astronomical considerations. Moses is later the first king of the 17th Dynasty of Thebes as Sobek-EMSAf II a name actually written in the hieroglpyhs as "MO-SHE" (also known as Sobekhotep VIII or Sechem-re Schedtaui). Since we know that Moses flew from Thebes when he was around 40, this puts him in the Eastern Delta Region of Egypt ca. 1667 BC, where Moses's Biblical Midianites are none other than the Hyksos, i.e. the Palestinians (nomadic desert dwellers), of whose king Moses takes one daughter as a wife. The 16th Dynasty King known as Anather is then Gideon (so also clearly readable according to the hieroglyphs as Hand-D-N i.e. GI-DI-N). See Midianites.

May 9, 1533 BC - Solar Eclipse right above the upraised hand of Orion (near Aldebaran) below the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is the eclipse of Amenhotep I.

June 1, 1478 BC - Solar Eclipse in the "pot" of Gemini. This is in the reign of Hatshepsut and co-regent Thutmosis III (Thutmose III) . Hatshepsut in our view was the Biblical Deborah. See the Appendix to this posting as an update.

May 14, 1338 BC - Solar Eclipse at the "upraised arm of Orion" below the gate to heaven between Auriga and Persus. This is the eclipse of Amenhotep III.

July 27, 1258 BC - Solar Eclipse at Regulus in Leo. This is Amenhotep IV, known as Echnaton (Akhenaten), and as the Biblical King SAUL, whose hieroglyph clearly shows an eclipsed object. We would expect the eclipse to have passed over Amarna. Echnaton must have seen the eclipse and resurrection of the Sun during his reign at the kingly star Regulus to be a particularly great omen and thereafter presented himself as the "Sun King SAUL". In Indo-European e.g. Latvian the word "SAULE" means "Sun", i.e. SOL.  See Evidence.

August 19, 1157 BC - Solar Eclipse near Spica and Virgo. This is Ramses II, the Biblical King Solomon. The RA or SAULE name is the "sun name" of the king and shows the position of the sun. The AMUN name is the "moon name". In the case of Ramses II the hieroglyphs in his cartouche indicate that this was the confluence of both the sun and the moon at Virgo - an eclipse. See Ramses II was King Solomon.

February 14, 1129 BC - Solar Eclipse below the back end of Pisces, under Pegasus, the Great Square, in the 29th year of reign of Ramses II and might be what is marked as an "earthquake" (?) at this time at Abu Simbel.

July 31, 1063 BC - Solar Eclipse at Zosma in Leo. This is Siptah, clearly marked with an eclipsed round object in the hieroglyph and perhaps the hieroglyph of Sethnacht also marked this event.

May 31, 957 BC - Solar Eclipse in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. This is Herihor.

May 22, 948 BC - Solar Eclipse above Orion. This is Pinodjem.

January 27, 932 BC - Solar Eclipse at Markab. This is Masaharta.

August 15, 831 BC - Solar Eclipse at Denebola in Leo - the end tail star of Leo is shown as the tail in the hieroglyph of Psusennes II and III (same person)
(Psus-ennes, as AN-TEF is as ENAS = Latvian "eclipse, shade")

August 19, 636 BC - Solar Eclipse at Denebola in Leo. This is Tefnacht.

September 21, 582 BC - Solar Eclipse at Spica in Virgo. This is an unusual heavenly conjunction because it also involves an occultation also of Jupiter, Saturn, and Mercury, so that, with either the Sun or the Moon as the host, there were four visitors. These four "visitors" are glorified in the monument of Pianchi (Pije).

March 28, 517 BC - Solar Eclipse at Sheratan in Aries. This is Taharqa (Aries) going to Tanutamani (Taurus).

December 4, 502 BC - Solar Eclipse at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus I.

November 24, 493 BC - Solar Eclipse at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus II.



25 LexiLine Newsletter 2006 Hatshepsut (Biblical Deborah) Lost and Found

Hatshepsut, who I have identified for years as the biblical Deborah, has now been claimed to have been "lost and found" as a mummy on the third floor of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The Egypt State Information Service  writes:

"The true mummy of ancient Egyptian queenHatshepsut was discovered in the third floor of the Egyptian Museum inCairo, Secretary General of Supreme Council for Antiquities Zahi Hawwasrevealed on Thursday.

The mummy was missing among thousands of artifacts lying in the museum,he said during his lecture at the New York-based Metropolitan Museum ofArts.

He said for decades archaeologists believed that a mummy found in Luxorwas that of the Egyptian queen. It was a streak of luck, he said, tofind this mummy.

The Metropolitan is hosting a Hatshepsut exhibition that displays 270 artifacts on the life history of the queen.

The American museum honoured Hawwas and his accompanying delegation inappreciation of their effort to unravel the mysteries of the EgyptianPharaohnic age."

Is Hawass right? We think so.

First, let us be clear that in my analysis,
Deborah = Hatshepsut
Barak = Thutmosis I  (Thutmose I).

Hatshepsut was the only "Queen" of Egypt
and Deborah  was the only "Female Judge" of pre-monarchic Israel.
They are one and the same person.

According to current scholarship, the name Deborah allegedly meant "bee" but in fact her name is given in hieroglyphs by the symbols of  the bread loaf (TE or DE), the vase pot (PO or BO incorrectly read by the Egyptologists as H because they have confused a reading for "fluid", i.e. the content of the pot), and the lion symbol (L or R, as Egyptologists should have known from the use of the lion for that sound in later eras). Actually the original name is something like BTL or PTL which I think is Hebrew hlwtb (bethula) meaning "virgin"  or "Virgo", as her assigned place in the heavens.  The term la-pi-do-th (Lapidoth), affiliated with Deborah as her alleged partner, just comes from a different reading of that same hieroglyph, moving the order of letters around, and was probably intentional. We explain this later below.

The astronomical conclusion that Deborah was Virgo is also verified by the picture and hieroglyphs found on one of the stone slabs marking the entrance to tomb KV20, where Deborah (Hatshepsut) is shown sitting on the back of a long downward and then upward curving giant serpent (clearly Hydra) at the exact position marking Virgo (p. 94 of the German version of The Complete Valley of the Kings by Reeves and Wilkinson). This marks the seventh hour of the so-called amduat , the hidden chambers of the hours of night, which of course are astronomical regions of the stars and can be followed quite easily - my discovery - from the Spring Equinox point to the Taurus to Osiris (Orion) and onward toward Hydra and the deepest underworld, for in about 1500 BC the lowest point of the celestial equator in its 26000-year circuit is in Hydra and Deborah's staff in the picture on the stone slab referred to above marks that lowest point at the bottom of the neck of Hydra.

Let me also point out that Barak  in Hebrew means "lightning" which is of course then related to Latvian PERK-onis "thunder". In Latvian there is however another homophonic word and that is PEREKlis (origin of the Greek name Pericles) =BARAK and that word means "roost of a bird", and that is why the name hieroglyph of Thutmosis, who is BARAK,  is a bird on a roost PEREKlis, a word also found in Akkadian by the way.  Hence, there is little doubt that tomb KV38 in its astronomically intentional high roost in the Valley of Kings was in fact the original tomb of Barak (Thutmosis I) and that John Romers' dating of KV38  after KV20 is simply wrong. KV 20 indeed represents the amduat in its shape and that is why it was dug so deeply underground. It had an astronomical significance. All of these observations are my discoveries. The Egyptologists are asleep.

As for the area of the heavens which was intended as BARAK's roost, note that parqenoj ("parthenos" - virgin), i.e. PARQ = BARAK,  also means virgin, so we have a match with Deborah and Barak in terms of where their realms were placed in the heavens. Deborah's realm would be Virgo and Barak's Bootes above it. As noted by Richard Hinckley Allen in Star Names (p. 101), Al Biruni refers to Arcturus as "the second calf of the lion" and Spica (in Virgo) is "the first calf of the lion", which "first calf" of the lion we see in Deborah's hieroglyphic name. Ideler showed that Arabic Bootes was also BAKKAR, the Herdsman (Allen p. 97), obviously an Arabic  name confusion with BARAK.

But of course, that is not all. Let us turn to the tombs in the Valley of Kings at THEBES  (recall that Latvian DEBESS means "heaven" and THEBES = DEBESS). The Valley of Kings at Thebes was the "heaven" to which the deceased pharaohs were sent.

Relying on the Thames and Hudson book, The Complete Valley of the Kings, which I have in my library in the German version as Das Tal der Koenige, by Nicholas Reeves and Richard H. Wilkinson, Econ, 1997 and various similar sources we discover that:

Deborah's (Hatshepsut's) tomb was first planned to be a cliff tomb at  Wadi Sikket Taquet el-Zaid  [German Wadi Sikket Taqa el-Zeide], discovered by Howard Carter in 1916,  but this "rock tomb " was never finished and never used.

Rather, after Barak, Deborah's father passed away, she became the regent and decided to make her own tomb KV20, bringing her beloved father down from tomb KV38 to join her at some point. Note here that it is generally thought Deborah's "partner" was Lapidoth, a term also meaning"red-haired", but she had no partner.  Lapidoth was Deborah.

When the mummies were moved  to save them from the grave robbers in the era of  Ramses IX, it is clear that Deborah's (Hatshepsut's) mummy was saved to the nearest smaller and thus less endangered tomb, that of her wet nurse in Tomb KV60,with the mummy for protection probably then placed in that coffin in the stead of her nurse. There were thus in fact two mummies found in KV60. One of them is still there and the other of these mummies, the blondish red-haired one is the one that was taken to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and which is now being hailed as the mummy of Deborah (Hatshepsut).

And here is my conclusion.

There is no doubt that the mummy with goldish-blonde red hair is Deborah (Hatshepsut), for Deborah was in fact famed for her red hair as Lapidoth, which is just another reading of the hieroglyphs of her name.

Other people pooh-bah Zahi Hawass as a showman, which he definitely is, and a good one, but I think he has an excellent nose for the truth, because he is sincerely interested in how actual history took place, and that is often more important than anything. In the instant case, we support Hawass in his conclusion. The blondish red-haired mummy is clearly Deborah (Hatshepsut).

The exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum is titled "Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh".  Imagine how many people would come to that exhibition if they knew that Hatshepsut was the biblical Deborah. New York City would have to worry about sinking because of the weight of the visitors.

I should note in closing that I was of course at the Hatschepsut exhibition when it was  held here in Germany in Speyer  in the year 2002 and it was terrific, and I can only recommend to all of you to go to New York and see this wonderful exhibition. I also recommend a publication I bought in German which is perhaps by now available in English. It is: Alfred Grimm and Sylvia Schoske, Hatschepsut: KoenigiIN Ägyptens, Muenchen 1999, Heft 8 der Schriften der Aegyptischen Sammlung (SAS).


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