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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Hydra - See the figure inside?

MUL.APIN 7 LexiLine? Logo Ziqpu Meridian Stars
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The Ziqpu [correct Uzkāpu] Meridian Zenith Stars
Tablet Nr. 86378
British Museum

The Ziqpu "Uzkāpu" Stars
Culminating at Meridian for
Heliacal Risings and Settings
(Column IV,  Lines 1 through 30)

Note that the system used here is that these are all constellations WITHIN the Ellipse of the Milky Way, En.Lil.

AK: These are the MUL.APIN "ziqpu" stars
used for culmination at the meridian (zenith).
The transcription of Sumerian ziqpu is incorrect
and should be uzqpu.
UZQPU is identical to Latvian UZ-KĀP(U) meaning
"ascent, throne, mount, that climbed up to".
The Babylonian term for "culmination", as Papke writes,
is INAQABAL SHAME which he transliterates
as "in the middle of heaven" so that Papke
sees QABAL SHAME as "meridian".
But actually QAB- = Latvian KĀP- "ascend, mount"
and GABAL- in Latvian means "section, line".
The uzkāpu system uses the principle of a sextant.

1./2./3. The Ziqpu-Stars - which on the Path of Enlil culminate
opposite the breast of the observer
and with the help of which
the rising and setting of stars can be determined - are:

the standing gods DINGIR.GUB.BA.MESH,
the sitting dog UR.KU

5. the Goat UZ, the Leopard UD.KA.DUCH.A,
the Stag LU.LIM, the Old One SHU.GI,
the Crooked Staff GAM

6. the Great Twins MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL,
the Crayfish AL.LUL, the Lion UR.GU.LA,
Erua and Chegalaju.

7./8./9. Those are all the Ziqpu-Stars on the Path of Enlil,
which culminate opposite your breast,
and with whose help you can determine
the rising and setting of stars.

10./11. If you are observing the Ziqpu...

12. and on the morning of the 20th of Nisannu
prior to sunrise, you stand so that West is to your right
and East is to your left
and your Eye is toward the South...

13/14. then the KUMARU [jaw, at Vega, Lyra] of the Leopard UD.KA.DUCH.A [Cygnus] culminates opposite your breast
and the Crooked Staff GAM [Camelopardalis] rises.

AK: Since this is 20th of Nissanu and not the first of Nisannu, it means that the 1st of Nisannu is at the Winter Solstice point of 2340 BC. It places the copying of these cuneiform tablets at ca. 720 BC in the reign of Sargon II = Ashurbanipal.

15./16. On the 1st of Ajjaru
the breast of the Leopard UD.KA.DUCH.A
culminates opposite your breast
and the Star Cluster MUL.MUL rises.

17./18. On the 20th of Ajjaru
the side/flank of the Leopard UD.KA.DUCH.A [Deneb]
culminates opposite your breast
and the (wooden-) Tablet GISH.Le [Taurus] rises.

19./20. On the 10th of Simanu
the end / hind of the Leopard UD.KA.DUCH.A [Cepheus]
culminates opposite your breast
and the Loyal Shepherd of Heaven SIPA.ZI.AN.NA [Orion] rises.

21. On the 15th of Du'uzu
the brightly-shining star of the Old One SHU.GI [ is in error, this is Perseus, Algol]
culminates opposite your breast
and the Lance KAK.SI.SA [Alphard] rises.

22./23. On the 15th of Abu
the dimly-shining stars of the Old One SHU.GI [Auriga]
culminate opposite your breast
and the Bow BAN [nu-Hydra] rises.

24. On the 15th of Ululu
the Great Twins MASH.TAB.BA.GAL.GAL [Gemini]
culminate opposite your breast and SHU.PA [Arcturus] and the Star of Eridu NUN.KI [False Cross] rise.

25. On the 15th of Tashritu
the Lion UR.GU.LA [Leo] culminates opposite your breast
and the Scales (zibanitum) [Libra] rise.

26. On the 15th of Arachsamna
Erua [Ursa Major, Mizar] culminates opposite your breast and the He-Goat UZ [Hercules] rises.

27. On the 15th of Kislimu
SHU.PA [Arcturus] culminates opposite your breast
and the Leopard (UD.KA.DUCH.A) [Cygnus] rises.

28. On the 15h of Tebetu
the standing gods DINGIR.GUB.BA.MESH [Dschubba]
culminate opposite your breast
and the swallow SIM.MACH [Delphinus] rises.

29. On the 15th of Shabatu
the sitting dog UR.KU [Ophiuchus, Serpens Caput] culminates opposite your breast and the Great Square ASH.IKU [Pegasus] rises.

30. On the 15th of Addaru
the He-Goat UZ [Hercules] culminates opposite your breast
and the Fish KU6 [Pisces] rises.

Go to MUL.APIN Path of the Moon


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