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Ancient Signs

Ancient Signs

The Alphabet & the Origins of Writing

My new print & ebook
shows that modern alphabets are based on ancient alphabets rooted in syllabic scripts of the ancient world (Sumer, Egypt, Iran, Anatolia, Crete, Cyprus)

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Sumerian LexiLine? Logo Terms L - Z
LexiLine - A Renaissance in Learning

L - Z
Lexical Equivalence on the basis of Latvian



LA, LAL be high, hold, lift, carry, hang,
weigh, deduce, strap, harness, bind, load,
lessen, light, deficient, minus, accuse,
denounce, to fall back, retreat
LACH, LUCH clean, wash, sweep
  LUGUD pus, serous
LA(L)U debt, owed amount
LAMMA female spirit of good fortune
LI juniper/cedar tree (see ERIN-)
LIRUM, LIRU, LIRI physical strength,
  strong, powerful (origin of word LORD)
LU many, much, numerous,
man, men, people

LAI so that, may, allow, in order that
LAIst let go, lessen, retreat, to fall back
LIEL big, large, high, great, important
LIELas to brag, make oneself big
LIEtuo to use something
LIJ-, LIET- pour liquid over
  retained even in English as LIQUID
AL(A)GA wage, earnings
LAIMA goddess of luck
LIE-pa linden tree
LIELAM, LIELU, LIELI big, large,
  strong (see LIEL above)
LAU-dis people
LAUNAGs afternoon meal, drink,
  picnic JAUK- mix, brew



MA 3, GA go MA 4 leave, go out
MASH interest, rent, profit, yield
ME power, office, responsibility,
  decree, oracle, we, our
MELI throat EME tongue, speech
MEN 2,3 myself , the I self
MISH, MESH, MES young man
  prince, son, elm (?) tree
MI, ME black
MU, MA 5 to mill, grind
MUDLA, MADLU, MUDUL pole, stake
MUG, MUK chisel, hew, carve
MUG nakedness, pudenda
MURGU 2 neck, back, shoulders
MURUB vulva, woman, sexual charm
MURUB 4,10 central, median area, hips
MURUB battle
MUSH snake, reptile
MUSH 4 a biting insect

MAKSA yield, pay, MAISS pouch
ME-S we, MUS- we, our
  AMA-TS office
MELE tongue, speech
MAN me, to me, mine
MEITA daughter, MASA sister
  MEDZ- create MEZHS forest
MEL- black
MAL grind
MIET-, MIETELE pole, stake
MALKA wood, MEZHS forest, wood
MAKs, MUKs pouch, pudenda
MILIBA love MIESIBA of the flesh
MERIBA  (long e) measurement
MUDZis, MUKT snake, crawler
MUSHA a fly



NA kill
NA 4 pebble, stone, token
NE; NI, NA human being, he, she,
that one, self, body
  IN he, she
NUD, NAD to lie with
Sivan's work on the Northwest Semitic
texts for various consonantal and vocalic
shifts  indicates vocalism at the beginning
of words was added later, as in Hebrew.
NI-GIN stillborn child

NI-GIN 2,3 vertigo

NIDBA 2 food offering
  (NIG/NI + DA + BA) is CORRECT !
NI-GIN halt, turn, surround, capacity
  especially of cattle (NI, NE 4 + GIN)
NI-SIG, NISSA greens, vegetation

NAve, NAvet death, kill
Lithuanian AN-, ANA he, she, one
VIENUOT to unite, join together

NE no, also as a prefixed particle NE-
of negation in word formation NA, NU

  not born, not alive
NUO- prefix from, off, out of, with, for
NUO-DZEN, NUO-DZIN drive off,
brush off, drive cattle, cut off

There is no O in Sumerian. Latvian has an "O" but
it is an "UO" pronounced as "WUAH"



PA 4,5,6 ditch, small canal
  PU well, cistern, pool
PA, PAD seek, find, choose, call,
  swear, take an oath, declare
PAB, PAP, PA 4, ABBA father, brother
PALA 2,3 clothing (gods, rulers)
PARA, BARA, PAR, BAR pass over
 stretch out, spread out
PESH 7 child, son
PESH 4, 13 be pregnant, conceive
PESH womb

UPE river

investigate, study, check, test, research
PAP-, PAPA father

PALAgs cloth, sheet
PAR, PARI over, above, pass above

PEC after, following  PUIKA boy
PISA has many sexual connotations
PEZHA womb (vulgar)

There is no Q in Sumerian or Latvian



RA strike, stab, stir, stamp, measure,
RI throw, cast, place, put, break, expel,
  remove, beget, take, plan
RIG mace, weapon
RIG govern, manage, tend
RIG 5,7 deed, grant, list
RU give, send, present, gift

RUO-KA, hand Lithuanian RA-NKA
  RI-KUO handle, act, organize
  RAK- to dig LIEK put, place
  RIK- tool, weapon
RIKUO, RAKst- handel, manage, tend
RIK- tool LIK- determine, place, set
RUO-KA, hand, hand over to



SA 6, SHA 6, SHAG 5, SIG 6, SIG 5
  sweet, good, pleasant
 SA sinew, cord, net, mat
SA 4 to name, call
SA 5, SA 11, SIR SI 4, SU 4, red
  red-brown, red ocher
SAG + TIN herbalist (see SUCHUSH)
SAG head, point, first, present, human
  SIKI, SIG hair, wool, fur, hide
SAGSHU cap, headdress
SAM, SHAM, SA 10 price, buy/sell
  SUM give, lend
SE 12 SIG 7 pale, yellow-green,
  create, live
SED, SED 7,11 repose, calm, abate
SEG snow, ice
SEG 4 frost, cold , chills
  CHALBA, CHALBI frost, freezing
SEG 6 heat, cook, boil, be hot
SHA to dry up
SHAB subtract, apportion, gather
SHAG 4, SHA intestines, heart, midst
SHAKIR/-AR, butter tub, milk jug,
  butter churn
SHE barley, grain
SHED 3,4,5 be together, join, link
SHIBIR shepherd's staff, scepter
SHIR, SHER to shine brightly
SHIR, SIR 4 testicles
SHIR, SHUR sing, song, lament
SHITA clean, priest
SHITA clear water, channel, canal
SHITA mace
SHITA 4 bind, band, bound
SHITA 5 a type of vessel
SHU hand, share, portion, bundle
SHUB cast, throw, fall, remove
SHUBA, SHUB 7 be bathed, clean
SHUD, SHU 12, SUB pray, bless
SHUDUN 2,3,4,5 SHUDUL 2,3,4,5
  yoke, crosspiece
SHUKUR spear, lance
SHURUN 4,5 cricket, cockroach
SHUSHUANA sixth ASH 3,4,8 six
SIG low, small, weak, late
SIG 3,11 SAG 2,3 SI chop (trees)
  strike, damage, shake, crush, blow
SIG 4 sun-dried brick, wall 
SIG 9 to be narrow
SIGGA, SIG 14, SHEG 8,9 boar
 SHACH domestic pig
SILA 3 street, path, trail, road
SILA measure of capacity - 0.842 liter
SILIM to be good, healthy
SU 6 beard
SU your, yours i.e. pronouns
  ZU, ZA you (singular)
SUB to suck, suckle (i.e. to teeth)
SUCH 2,3,5 uproot, displace
SUCH carefully chosen
SUCHUSH roots, support, foundation

SUG, SUB, SU 8 lead out, travel (herd)
SU body, naked
SUL 4, SUL 7 threshing floor, grain pile
SU-N4 chin
SUNIN, SUMUN, SUN old, rot, past
SU 9 SHA 4 mourn, red ocher SA 5
SUR, SHUR rain, flow, drink, gleam
SUR 8, ZAR tap, pour, spout, flow
SUSBU clean, bathed, a priest
SUSH 2,3 anoint
SUSH 2, SHU 2,4 overthrow, throw
SUSH sit down, to reside

  sweet, good pleasant
 SEJ- bind, tie
SAUC, SAC-, SAK- call, to name
SARkans red (short u) SARt (long u)
  glow, fire, campfire, blush, show red
SAK- begin, (long a) SAKNE root
  cover, face, beginning  SIKI thin
CHAM-, CHEM-, CHUM- (old)
  modern CEN- price, bunch, handful
DZI-, ZI-, (D)ZIL-, ZAL, ZEL life,
  create, blue, green, yellow
SED sits, reposes, relaxes
SNIEG-, SEGA snow, cover (SAG)
SALA, SALI , SALST frost, cold
  SALIBA freezing
SVILt, SU-T stew, braise, burn
CHAP-, CHUPA heap, amount, pile
IEK-SHA innards, in the midst, inside
SAKRAJ collect saKREJums cream
  SIERs cheese
SEJA that sown
CIET together, joined, linked
ZHUBUR prong, stick, branch
DZIRk- spark
DZIE-DZERI- glands, testicles
DZIR-, DZIED, SERUO sing, lament
CITigs- (long i) clean, diligent
DZIDrs clear water, DZIT- channel
SITA to strike
SIETA tied, bound
SAUJA hand, handfull, SAInis bundle
SHUP- push, swing -German SCHUB
CHUBinat take care off, caress, groom
SVET- holy SVAB- free(dom)
JUG-, JUDZIN- yoke ZHUOG-,  
  ZHUODZINS- confine, enclosure
SHKEPURis spear, lance, crook
CIRCENis cricket, cockroach
SIKs tiny SEK- late, following
SIT hit, strike, hurt, damage
  ZAGE saw SUOD punish
SIE-NA wall  
SHAUR- narrow
CUKA swine, SIV-ENS pig(let)
  CUKA swine
CELA, IELA road, street, path, way
SILA, SILE trough
VE-SELAM healthy
USA, USU (of) whiskers
  SHIE-M, SHI-NI, TU, TA pronouns
SUK suck, suckle
SUODS punishment
SAUC call, choose in this sense
SAK- SAKAS beginnings SAKNE
  SAKTINA- root, rooter
SEKUO follow (a leader)
SEGA covering, skin SEJA face
KUL, KULET thresh
ZUODS chin
SEN-, SENIN, SENAM old, long ago
SER- sorrow
SHALt rain SULA juice DZER- drink
SULA juice
SAUSIBU of being dry  SAUSS dry
SVIEZH- throw, throw down
SEZH sits



TA to, for, from, nature, character
TAB two, pair, companion
TAB sting, fever, burn, tremble
TAG hold, handle, touch, weave,
  adorn, strike, hit, start fire, fish, hunt
TAK 4, TAG 4 abandon, leave
TAR decide, determine, inquire
TESHLUG small young animal, fledgling
TIL, TI life, live, survive, dwell
TU 5,17 wash, bathe, make libation
TUG, TU 9 cloth, woven garment
TUK, DUK, TUG acquire, receive
TUD, TU beget, make, fashion
TUKUN immediately, at once
TUR 5, TU pigeon GIRISH butterfly

TA demons. pronoun - it, its, that, to
DUBult , DIV- double , two ABI both
SAP pain, hurt, sting, be injured
TAI-sa to make, complete, build, open
  TAU-sta touch DUO give, hand to
TEC, TEK run, flow, pass by, move on
DAR-, CER- does, considers
TELSH calf
DZI- life,live, survive, dwell
TUP squat
auDEKlis woven garment, cloth
TIK, TIEK, TIEKU become, receive
DUO, DUOT gives, results in
TAGAD, TULIN now, at once
DUJA pigeon, TAURis butterfly



UB 4 cavity, hole, pitfall
UBILLA 2 soot
UCH lice, insect, parasite, vermin
UD, U 4 sun, light, day, time, when
  since, storm (demon)
UDU sheep UTUA 2 ram UZ she-goat
  US 5, U 8 mother ewe KIR 11 lamb
UG 6, U 6 look, gaze
UG 5,7,8 die, death, kill (KAU-)
UGA,UKU people
UKUSH cucumber
ULUSHIN emmer beer
ULUTIN attractive, attention-getting
UMUSH, USH 4 intelligence
  knowledge ability, discernment
UR roof, entrance, mountain pass
  (faulty transcription)
URI 2,5 URIM 2,5 door(post)
  (faulty transcription)
URU watch, guard, light, luminous object
URUDU copper see also VAR-
URUM, URU 6, URU 7 kin, spawn
UR, URGU dog, carnivorous beast
URIN eagle
URU 4 to plough, cultivate
URUGAL the netherworld (uru + gal)
  ARALI, ARALA the netherworld
US follow, drive, come near, be next to,
  lean against, side, edge, length, distance
US-AN evening
USH blood
USH, USH 8 support, base, foundation
USSU 2,3 eight NW Semitic TJAMANE
  SHAMANE Egyptian KEMEN- eight

AP-SA hole
IEPELI, PELI ashes, soot, gray-colored
UODS gnat, UODZE viper
KAD when,GAD year
  GAITA course JUOD devil
AITA, AITU sheep AUNs ram
  AZ-, AZHA he-goat  JER- lamb
ACS, ACI- eye, in the eye of
GULA reclining, in a fallen position
IK, IKI, IKU which (persons)
IEKUOZH bite GURKIS cucumber
(ie)LUTIN- spoil(ed), pampered
IEMAC-, MAK, MEDZ, learn, talent,
  ability, make, create, teach
KURms, KALns, KURma
roof, mountain (pass), elevation
  relating to the door
RE, IERE-DZE sight , observation
RUDU VARA copper metal
VAIRUO, VAIRUM multiply, increase
URKis digger, burrower, clawed beast
ARANIS eagle (Lithuanian), ERGLIS
AR, ARA, ARUOt plow, cultivate
ARU GAL- outside end of
  ARELE outside
UZ independent word also used as a
  directional prefix - to, on, in, at, with
UZ ENAS PUSI toward eve, shadows
AS-INIS blood
UZ on
AS-TONI eight, Old.Prussian (Baltic)
  AS-meni eight, i.e. AS-MEN- eight

There is no V in Sumerian, but similar Latvian
V-words are found in Sumerian starting with B or U.
There is no W, X or Y in Sumerian or Latvian.



ZA 2 stone, rock, precious stone,
  hailstone, pit, kernel
ZACH 2,3 flee, be lost, perish
ZAG, ZA shoulder, right side, border
ZAR 5, SIR 5, SUR spin, twine
ZE cut, shear
ZI breathing, breath (of life), soul
ZID, ZI right (hand), good, true,
  legitimate (transcription faulty)
ZIG, ZI go out
ZIZ a crop-devouring insect
ZIZNA, fish roe
ZUBU, ZUBI sickle
ZIB 2 mark, stamp, brand
ZU know, understand, wisdom
ZU tooth, ivory, flint, obsidian, glass
ZUCH steal, rob AZAG taboo

ASSA, sharp ASmenis blade, edge
  AK-MENIS rock, stone
ZUD-, ZUDIS, ZAUD lost, perish
SANI side (of something)
ZAR- sprout, branch out, twine
CER cut, shear
DZI-VE life, breathe (life)
IST-, ISTS (long i)
  true, real, legitimate Egyptian ISIS
IZEJA, IZIET out-go,  go out, EXit
SISenis grasshopper
ZIVs, ZIVINA dim. fish roe IKRI
ZHUBUR- prong  ZUOB- edge
CIPars mark, sign, number
ZIN- know, understand, wisdom
ZUO-BS tooth (<AS-SU sharp)
ZAG, IEZAG thievery, ZAIME sin

Go to A - K

See also
Sumerians, Cimmerians and Samarians


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